How To Select Key Words

Gbur and Trumbo (1995) published a list of ways of producing effective key words and phrases. Table 2.4.3 provides an abbreviated version. It is possible that, with future developments, all of these problems will actually disappear. As one colleague has put it, 'Inverted-full-text-Boolean indexing and online searching (with similarity algorithms and citation- Table 2.4.2 Different methods for supplying key words Authors supply them with no restrictions on the numbers allowed. Authors supply up...

General Procedures

In order to publish a book, it is useful to think first about an appropriate publisher. Some publishers will have books on similar topics in their 'list', and others won't. It might be best to look to the first kind, for they will know the market better. Then it is a good idea to check these publishers out on the Web. Each will have a homepage with details about submissions and possibly the names of their commissioning editors for the different categories of texts that they publish. A letter to...

Strategies For Presenting Results In Reviews

There are at least six ways of presenting summaries of the results of research reviews, which can be placed along a continuum of statistical precision. 1 The narrative review This is the kind of review that is typically used in this book. Writers research around a particular topic and then write a review of the field, giving their own 'take' on it, selecting evidence from whatever seems appropriate to them. This type of review is most common in text-books and popular journals. I once provided a...

Delays In Journal Publishing

Publication lags differ in different journals. Most journals now publish with each article the dates of the original submission, the revised submission and when the article was accepted for publication which can be a year or more before it appears in print. Researchers can get a good idea of publication delays by inspecting this information in recent issues of the journals that they intend to submit to. Generally speaking, it takes longer to publish articles in high-quality journals (often well...

James Hartley

Taylor& Francis Croup LONDON AND NEW YORK 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OXI4 4RN Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2008. To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge's collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk. All rights reserved. No part of this book...

Structured Abstracts

Structured abstracts are typically written using five sub-headings 'background', 'aim', 'method', 'results' and 'conclusions'. Sometimes the wording of these sub-headings varies a little 'objectives' for 'aim', for example, but the meaning is much the same. Structured abstracts were introduced into medical research journals in the 1980s. Since then they have been widely used in medicine and other areas of research (Nakayama et al, 2005). In 2004, I published a narrative review of their...

General Advice

Some points to bear in mind, when writing both general and specific comments, are as follows Be courteous throughout. There is no need to be superior, sarcastic or to show off. Remember the paper that you are refereeing might have been written by a postgraduate, and it could be a first attempt at publication. Table 4.4.1 The main concerns of referees adapted with permission from Brown 2004 courtesy of The Scientist and Sense about Science, www.senseaboutscience. org Significance Are the...

Acknowledgements

Most academic articles contain acknowledgements to various sources of help received during their preparation, although one editor of my acquaintance steadfastly deletes them on the grounds that they add nothing to the content. However, I believe that it is courteous to thank sources of financial support and colleagues and referees for their help in improving articles. Slatcher and Pennebaker conclude Portions of this research were funded by a grant from the National Institutes of Health MH53291...

Delays In Book Publishing

When the contract has been signed, authors can get on with completing their text, but a number of things can hold them up. One of these, in particular, is having to obtain permission to reproduce tables, figures and quotations from previously published materials even if they are your own originals . . . Some people counsel authors to start doing this almost as soon as they think they will need to copy something when they set out writing their text. However, because permissions have to be given...

Introductions

It is but a short step from structured abstracts to structured texts. In the following chapters we shall see how each part of the structure of a scientific article the introduction, method, results, discussion and conclusion can indeed be subdivided into finer structures. Swales and Feak 2004 describe what they characterise as 'moves' in the various sections of academic articles. Basically, a 'move' is a stage in the argument that all writers go through. The 'moves' for the introduction are...

American Historical Review Reading And Writing Book Reviews

In a recent study, I reported on my findings when I sent out an electronic questionnaire on reading and writing book reviews to groups of academics in the arts, sciences and social sciences Hartley, 2006 . Approximately fifty people in each of these groups replied. Almost two-thirds of them recalled reading a dreadful book review. Some of the things they said about such reviews were that they were pointless, uninformative, indecisive and boring a mere listing of the contents pretentious, unkind...

Move Occupying the niche

The introduction concludes in paragraph 5 with the following key phrases 'In the present study we sought to investigate the social effects of expressive writing . . .', 'Three predictions were tested. First . . .'. Slatcher and Pennebaker thus follow Swales and Feak's analysis almost line by line. It is also worth noting, in passing, that the literature review in this paper is quite short, and there are only nine references. Day and Gastel 2006 comment that, 'Introductions should supply...

The Flesch Reading Ease score

The Flesch score is now one of many easily obtained computer-based measures of text readability. The scores run from 0 to 100, and the higher the score, the easier the text. The original measure was created in 1943 by Rudolph Flesch to measure the readability of magazine articles Klare, 1963 . Basically, what current measures of the score do is to count the length of the words and the length of the sentences in a passage and compute these into a reading ease RE score Flesch, 1948 . The...

Different kinds of thesis

Paltridge 2002 described, with examples, four types of thesis, based upon an analysis of fifteen master's and fifteen Australian Ph.D. theses. These types were 1 Traditional simple Here, typically, there were six sections introduction, literature review, materials and methods, results, discussion and conclusions the IMRAD structure writ large. 2 Traditional complex Here there were more sections, for example introduction background to the study and literature review background theory and methods...

Sex differences in academic writing

In Chapter 1.1 I discussed some differences between the writing processes of individual academics. In that chapter, I did not report, nor indeed have I found, any data on sex differences in this respect. This is surprising given that there has always been an interest in differences between the sexes in terms of verbal ability. It is commonly held that women are more verbal than men. Consequently, there is considerable discussion about whether or not men and women write and speak in different...

Unsolicited book reviews

Some editors accept unsolicited reviews, provided that they meet the required standards. As one editor put it I strongly encourage unsolicited reviews. Journal of Technical Writing and Communication Others are more cautious, for example This journal does not publish unsolicited reviews. However, if you would like to be added to our database of potential reviewers, please fill in our potential reviewers data-sheet. The Hispanic American Historical Review Unsolicited book reviews are not...

Thirteen Types Of Title

1 Titles that announce the general subject, for example Designing instructional and informational text. On writing scientific articles in English. 2 Titles that particularise a specific theme following a general heading, Pre-writing The relation between thinking and feeling. The achievement of black Caribbean girls Good practice in Lambeth schools. The role of values in educational research The case for reflexivity. 3 Titles that indicate the controlling question, for example Is academic...

Posters

Imrad Scientific Poster

Poster papers were initially introduced to ensure that people could still have their work presented at conferences when there was insufficient space for it on the main programme. Curiously enough, I have been unable to find any assessments of their effectiveness in this respect. Most papers on posters concern their design. Figure 3.6.1 shows a typical arrangement for a poster at a scientific conference. Conference organisers usually specify how large such posters can be. A conventional size is...

Pie charts bar charts and linegraphs

It is usual in discussions such as this to distinguish between pie charts, bar charts and line graphs. Pie charts are much rarer in academic articles than are bar charts and line graphs, and probably should be avoided in this context. Pie charts are difficult to label and to read if they contain several segments see Figure 3.5.2 . Further, multicoloured segments do not copy well in black and white. 1950 55 60 65 70 1950 55 60 65 70 Figure 3.5.1 Plotting the same data with different vertical...