Abbreviations for American states used in citing references

(Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5 th edn) (pp. 217—18) (2001). Washington: American Psychological Association. Reprinted with permission.)

The following cities are used in citing places of publication without their states because they are well known in their own right:

Amsterdam London Paris Tokyo

Baltimore Los Angeles Philadelphia Vienna

Boston Milan Rome

Chicago

Moscow

San Francisco

Jerusalem

New York

Stockholm

Abbreviations for

states and territories in the USA:

Location

Abbreviation

Location

Abbreviation

Alabama

AL

Missouri

MO

Alaska

AK

Montana

MT

American Samoa

AS

Nebraska

NE

Arizona

AZ

Nevada

NV

Arkansas

AR

New Hampshire

NH

California

CA

New Jersey

NJ

Canal Zone

CZ

New Mexico

NM

Colorado

CO

New York

NY

Connecticut

CT

North Carolina

NC

Delaware

DE

North Dakota

ND

District of

Ohio

OH

Columbia

DC

Oklahoma

OK

Florida

FL

Oregon

OR

Georgia

GA

Pennsylvania

PA

Guam

GU

Puerto Rico

PR

Hawaii

HI

Rhode Island

RI

190 Appendix 3

Idaho

ID

South Carolina

SC

Illinois

IL

South Dakota

SD

Indiana

IN

Tennessee

TN

Iowa

IA

Texas

TX

Kansas

KS

Utah

UT

Kentucky

KY

Vermont

VT

Louisiana

LA

Virginia

VA

Maine

ME

Virgin Islands

VI

Maryland

MD

Washington

WA

Massachusetts

MA

West Virginia

WV

Michigan

MI

Wisconsin

WI

Minnesota

MN

Wyoming

WY

Mississippi

MS

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