Problems Of Measurement

In most of the studies of productive authors listed above, productivity was measured by the number of publications, rather than their quality. For example, in Hartley and Branthwaite's (1989) study — carried out before impact factors and research assessment exercises — the participants' total productivity scores were arrived at by asking them how many items they had published in various categories over three years. These numbers were then multiplied by various weightings: e.g. books were given five marks; book chapters three marks; edited collections of previously published papers two marks; and academic papers one mark. In this study, no differentiation was made between single and joint or multiple authorship, and books were rated as the most important contributions.

Today, it is more common to find that only journal publications are counted, and that each contribution is weighted by the number of authors. In some studies, the number of citations for each paper and the journal impact factor are also included (e.g. see Fonseca et al., 1997; Kotrlik et al., 2002), and, because new technology figures highly in productivity, we may well expect future studies of productive authors to assess how they use the Internet to enhance their productivity.

Discipline Contributions

First Best Last Death

Mathematics

Astronomy

Physics

Chemistry

Biology

Medicine

Technology

Earth Sciences

Other Sciences

Figure 4.8.1 Career landmarks in different disciplines.

From Simonton (I994), p. I88. Reproduced with permission of the author and Guilford Press.

Figure 4.8.1 Career landmarks in different disciplines.

From Simonton (I994), p. I88. Reproduced with permission of the author and Guilford Press.

Table 4.8.1 A portrait of Nobel laureates in terms of age, publication and collaboration

Specialism

Age at

No. of

No. of

Total no.

Highest

Age at

(period of

first

single

joint

of

no.

Nobel

coverage)

publication

author papers

publications

publications

of authors per paper

award

Physicist

18

324

141

465

6

42

C. V. Raman

(1906-1970)

Geneticist

24

66

12

78

4

81

B. McClintock

(1926-1984)

Astrophysicist

18

63

317

380

3

73

S. Chandrasekhar

(1928-1990)

Crystallographer

22

66

144

210

13

54

D. C. Hodgkin

(1932-1988)

Physicist

24

267

155

422

7

59

P. G. de Gennes

(1956-1995)

Chemista

25

37

709

746

13

41

J. Heeger

(1960-2004)

Physiologistb

22

20

88

108

14

62

L. H. Hartwell

(1961-2001)

Physicistc

26

122

72

194

15

59

A. J. Leggett

(1964-2004)

Femtochemist

30

30

216

246

6

53

A. H. Zewail

(1976-1994)

Atomic physicist

20

18

97

115

14

44

W. Ketterle

(1982-2002)

Fullerene chemist

26

20

170

190

16

67

H. W. Kroto

(1985-2000)

Notes a Data from Angadi, M., Koganuramath, M. M., Kademani, B. S., Kumbar, B. D. and Jange, S. (2007). Scientometric portrait of Nobel laureate Alan J. Heeger. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Webometrics, Informatrics and Scientometrics, New Delhi: India. b Data from Angadi, M., Koganuramath, M. M., Kademani, B.S., Kalyane, V. L. and Sen, B. K. (2004). Scientometric portrait of Nobel laureate Leland H. Hartwell. Proceedings of the International Workshop in Webometrics, Informetrics and Scientometrics, Roorkee, India, pp. 10-30. (See Reprints Archives in Library and Information Science: http://eprints.rclis.org/.) c Data from Angadi, M., Koganuramath, M. M., Kademani, B. S., Kumbar, B. D. and Jange, S. (2006). Nobel Laureate Anthony J. Leggett: A scientometric portrait. Annals of Library and Information Studies, 53(4), 203-12.

Adapted from and with additions to Table 2 in Kademani et al. (2005), p. 266 with permission of the authors and the copyright holder, Akademiai Kiado.

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