Commas Four More

Use a comma:

1. After introductory transition signals (any transition word or phrase in front of the subject of the first independent clause)

First, carry out the empty bottles and cans.

From my window, 1 have a beautiful view.

After lunch, my grandfather takes a nap.

For example, some teachers give pop quizzes.


To separate the items in a series

In our class there are students from Mexico, Japan, Vietnam, Iran, China, and Guatemala.


After the first part of a compound sentence

Cook the rice over low heat for twenty minutes, but don't let it burn.

Many students work, so they don't have time to do homework.


After a dependent clause in a complex sentence

Because Mexico City is surrounded by mountains, it has a lot of smog.

Here are four more comma rules:

rules examples

Use a comma:


To separate thousands, millions, billions, etc.

The world's population will be more than 6,000,000,000 in the year 2000.

but not in a number that expresses a year, and not to separate dollars from cents or whole numbers from decimals (use a period, not a comma)

1996 $59.95 67s = 6.875


To separate the parts of dates and after years

December 31,1999, will be the last day of this millennium.


To separate the parts of an address except between the state and the zip code

The address of the White House is 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, DC 20500.


After the greeting and closing in a personal letter, and after the closing in a business letter

Dear Michiko, Dear Mom, Love,

Very truly yours,

ixz3s3x33hi a. Add commas to the sentences. (Not all sentences need them.) Commas

Rules 1-4:

1. Some students work full time and go to school part time.

2. For example one of my classmates takes six units and works forty hours a week.

3. Because he is also married and has two children he is a very busy person.

4. He works at night attends class in the morning and sleeps when he can.

5. When he fell asleep in class yesterday we decided not to wake him up.

6. Scientists believe that animals can think feel and communicate just as humans can.

7. My dog certainly acts like a human at times.

8. For instance when he does something bad he looks guilty.

9. He hangs his head drops his tail looks up at me with sad eyes and whines.1

10. Later we discover the reason for his guilty looks but it's hard to punish him.

Rules 1-7:

11. The population of Mexico City will be more than 31000000 by the year 2000.

12. Astronomers believe that the Earth is 15000000000 years old.

13. My mother lives in Miami Florida in the winter and in Denver Colorado in the summer.

14. When it becomes too hot in Florida she moves to Colorado.

15. She moves back to Florida when it gets too cold in Colorado.

16. Her address in Florida is P.O. Box 695 Miami Florida 33167 and her address in Colorado is 3562 State Street Apt. 3-C Denver Colorado 80210.

'whines: cries

17. On Sunday June 15 1998 I graduated from college.

18. Then on Monday June 16 1998 I started looking for a job.

B. Work by yourself and then with a partner. Write one sentence of your own for Rules 1-7, but leave out the commas. Then give your seven sentences to your partner and ask him or her to put in the commas.

C(lpit(lliZ(lti(MHere are two more capitalization rules:





1 1. Abbreviations




note 1: USA is an abbrevia

United States of America

tion for United States of

Saudi Arabia

America. Do not capitalize


all of the letters in a

country's name.

note 2: Capitalize only the

Dr. Mr. and Mrs. Prof.

first letter of the abbrevia

tion of a person's title.

12. All the words in a

Dear Sir:

greeting and the first

To Whom It May Concern:

word in the closing of


a letter

Very truly yours,


Capitalization Review

Work with a partner or by yourself. Review the rules for using capital letters on pages 13 and 55-56. Then change the small letters to capital letters wherever necessary in the letter from Nicole to her sister Miki.

September 3, 19_

dear miki, well, here i am in new york city, i still can't believe that i'm actually here! i arrived on Saturday after a long flight from paris on air france. the food was excellent, and so was the movie, we saw gone with the wind, i stayed Saturday and Sunday nights at the fairmount hotel near rockefeller center, then on monday i moved into my dormitory at nyu.1

'nyu: New York University i spent my entire first weekend here sightseeing, i saw many famous places: rockefeller center, the world trade center, the guggenheim museum, the ny stock exchange, and the statue of liberty, i window-shopped at gucci and saks on fifth avenue, i also visited another famous art museum and the nbc television studios.

today is a holiday in the united states, it is labor day, so all of the government offices, schools, and banks are closed, americans celebrate the end of summer by having a three-day weekend, many new yorkers spend the day in central park or go to the beach on long island.

i learned some interesting things about new york. its nickname is "the big apple," but no one knows why it's called an apple and not a banana or an orange, another interesting fact is that the first europeans who came here bought manhattan island2 from the indians for only $84.00. of course, it's now worth trillions of dollars.

well, that's all for now. classes begin next week, i'm having a good time, but i miss you all, and i really miss french food, write soon.

with love, nicole

Personal Letter Form

A personal letter is a letter to a friend or to a family member. To make sure the form of your personal letter is correct, do the following:

1. Write the date in the upper right-hand corner.

2. Capitalize all the words in a greeting and the first word in the closing.

2manhattan island: the island on which New York City is located

3. Put a comma after the greeting and after the closing.

4. Start the closing and your signature in about the middle of the

5. There are several possible closings for personal letters. They are listed below, in order from very friendly to formal:

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