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C. Turn back to the practice on clauses on page 150. Write complex sentences by combining independent clauses with dependent clauses as follows.

Combine 1 and 2:_

Combine 4 and 5:

Combine 6 and 7:

Combine 8 and 9:

Combine 10 and 11:

Summary: Kinds of Sentences

Let's summarize what you have learned about the three kinds of sentences.

• A simple sentence has one independent clause. It was a sunny day.

• A compound sentence has two or more independent clauses joined by a comma and a coordinating conjunction.

It was a sunny day, so we went to the beach.

• A complex sentence has one independent and one or more dependent clauses. A comma is needed if the dependent clause comes first.

We went to the beach because it was a sunny day. Because it was a sunny day, we went to the beach.

practice:

Simple,

Compound, and

Complex

Sentences

Work by yourself or with a partner.

1. Underline all independent clauses with a solid line and all dependent clauses with a brokenJine.

2. In the space at the left, write the words simple, compound, or complex to identify each sentence type.

UNUSUAL VACATIONS

complex 1. Some people like to relax and do nothing when they take a vacation.

2. Other people like to travel, and still others like to have an adventure.

3. Unusual vacations are becoming popular.

4. For example, people go hiking in Nepal or river rafting in Ecuador.

5. Some people spend their vacations learning, and some spend their vacations helping others.

6. A friend of mine studied Japanese during his vacation because his company is going to send him to Japan to work.

7. A friend of mine likes to help people, so he spent his summer helping to build a school in Bangladesh.

8. After he returned home, he wanted to go back to build a medical clinic.

9. The travel business is changing because people are taking different vacations.

10. After people have been in the jungles of Guatemala, they may find the beaches of Florida a little boring.

Fragments Another kind of sentence error is called a fragment. The word fragment means a part of something. A sentence fragment is a part of a sentence or a piece of a sentence; it is not a whole sentence.

These are fragments:

Fragment: Because he wants to go to college.

Fragment: When the storm ended.

Fragment: Although he studies very hard.

Why are they fragments? They are fragments because they are dependent clauses. A dependent clause cannot be a sentence by itself. It must be joined to an independent clause.

Corrected: Because he wants to go to college, he studies hard.

Corrected: We went outside when the storm ended.

Corrected: Although he studies very hard, he doesn't get good grades.

Corrected: We went outside when the storm ended.

Corrected: Although he studies very hard, he doesn't get good grades. It is especially easy to write fragments when you begin a sentence with the word because. For example, the paragraph above might have been written incorrectly like this (the fragment is underlined):

Why are they fragments? Because they are dependent clauses. A dependent clause cannot be a sentence by itself. It must be joined to an independent clause.

It seems repititious to repeat the words They are fragments, but this independent clause is necessary to make the sentence complete.

EXQsnzaH

Fragments

Work by yourself or with a partner.

1. Read each sentence. Decide if it is a fragment or a sentence. Write F for fragment and S for sentence.

2. Then correct each fragment by adding an independent clause. Write your new sentences on the lines below.

__1. Because several students were not prepared for the quiz.

__2. Every night, after I finish dinner.

__3. Because my children were sick, I was up all night.

__4. Because I was up all night with my sick children.

__5. Because my children were sick and I was up all night.

__6. When my children get sick.

7. My children seem to get sick only when I have a test.

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