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The Farlex Grammar Book

Complete English Grammar Rules

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Capitalization Brainstorming

ORGANIZATION

• Time-Order Paragraphs

• Time-Order Transition Signals

SENTENCE STRUCTURE

• Compound Sentences

• Comma Splices

GRAMMAR AND MECHANICS

• Capitalization: Five More Rules

THE WRITING PROCESS

Brainstorming/Listing

Preivriting: Brainstorming

Brainstorming is another method for getting ideas. When you brainstorm, you quickly make a list of every word, every phrase, every idea that comes into your mind about your topic. Write every thought down. Don't worry if it is correct or not. Your goal is to list as much as possible as quickly as possible.

Brainstorming is different from freewriting. In freewriting, you write words, phrases, and whole sentences across the paper horizontally. In brainstorming, you list single words or phrases vertically (from the top of the page to the bottom). You don't take the time to write whole sentences.

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Brainstorming

Work with a group of at least three students.

1. First look at the picture of the messy house after a party on the previous page.

2. Make a list of all the things you should do to clean it up. Write down every idea. Don't worry about putting the ideas in order. You will do that later.

3. After your group has finished brainstorming, your teacher may ask you to share your list with other groups. Keep your list. You will use it later to write a paragraph.

BRAINSTORMING LIST

PART

Organization

In this unit, you will learn to write clear instructions. That is, you will explain how to do something or how to make something—how to get to your house, how to cook a special dish, how to change a tire, or how to give a manicure, for example. You will do this in a time order paragraph. That is, you will explain each step in your instructions in order by time, and you will use special time-order transition signals to show the order. These are the two keys to writing clear instructions.

Time-Order Paragraphs

A time-order paragraph is a paragraph in which the ideas are put in order by time. For example, when you write about an event, you use time order to tell about it. You write first this happened, next that happened, and then something else happened.

When you write instructions, you use time order. You divide your instructions into a series of steps, and list the steps in order by time. For example, when you teach someone how to jump-start a car, you explain how to connect the jumper cables before you tell how to start the engine. If you teach someone how to make a cake, you tell how to mix the ingredients before you explain how to bake the cake.

As you read the model paragraph on the next page, notice that the steps are given in order by time. Also notice the time words that show what happens first, second, third, and so forth.

Garage Sale Pricing Guidelines

GARAGE I SALE

MODEL PARAGRAPH

Time Order

How to Have a Successful Garage Sale It's easy to have a successful garage sale if you prepare for it ahead of time. First, collect used items in good condition. These items can be clothes, toys, books, dishes, lamps, furniture, TVs, pictures, and sporting goods. Clean everything well and store it in your garage until the day of the sale. Next, decide on a day and time for your sale. Third, decide on the prices, and mark a price on each item. If you are not sure how much to charge, check the prices at other garage sales in your community. Fourth, make signs advertising the date, time, and address of your sale, and put them up around your neighborhood. Then get some change from the bank. Get at least twenty dollars in one-dollar bills, a roll of quarters, and a roll of dimes. Finally, get up early on the morning of the sale, and arrange the items on tables in your driveway and in your garage. After that, sit back and wait for your customers to arrive. Be prepared to bargain! That's part of the fun of having a garage sale.

Planning a Paragraph: Outlining

Before you write a paragraph, you should plan what you are going to write. Think of writing a paragraph like building a house. You would never start to build a house without a plan; similarly, you should never start to write a paragraph without one. A plan for a writing assignment is called an outline. An outline helps you organize your ideas and put them in logical order.

Here's how to make an oudine. The first step is to get ideas by pre-writing.

STEP I:

Brainstorm to Get Ideas

On page 32, you learned that brainstorming is a method for getting ideas, and you brainstormed a list of things to do to clean up a house after a party. Here is the brainstorming list for the model paragraph on how to have a successful garage sale.

Howto Have a Successful Garage Sale

collect used things in good

people don't buy broken or dirty

condition

things

clothes

get change from the bank

toys

ask your friends to help

books

decide on the prices

old dishes

put a price on each item

store them in the garage

buy price tags

clean everything

make sure everything is clean

clean the garage

wash and iron the clothes

arrange items on tables

advertise

borrow tables

try to have it on a sunny day

make signs

decide on a day and time

put them around the

be prepared to bargain

neighborhood

Edit the Brainstorming List

The second step in making an outline is to edit the freewriting or brainstorming list. Decide what you want to include in your final paragraph and what you want to omit.

• Combine ideas that belong together.

• Cross out words that repeat the same ideas.

• Cross out ideas that are not directly related to the main idea. See how the writer of the model paragraph on the next page edited his brainstorming list.

Unit 2

How to Have a Successful Garage 5ale

l

collect used things in good

people don't buy broken or thirty

-.v\>

condition

things

clothes

get change from the bank

toys

ask your friends to holp

books

decide on the prices

old dishes

put a price on each item

1 p

store them in the garage

buy price tago

S

clean everything

make sure everything io oloan

¿ft!

clean the garag?

wash and iron the olothao

s

arrange items on tables

advertise

borrow tables

try to have it on a sunny day

c

make signs

decide on a day and time

put them around the

be prepared to bargain

neighborhood

i

Work by yourself, with a partner, or with a group.

brainstorming List '' Tum back t0 y0Ur brainstorminglist on PaSe 32 on cleaning up after ^ a party.

2. Edit the list.

• Combine related ideas.

• Cross out repeated ideas.

• Cross out unimportant ideas.

3. Write your revised list on the next page.

REVISED LIST

STEP 3:

Organize the List

The third step is to put the list in order. To tell how to do or make something, the steps should be in time order. What happens first? Second? Third? Last? Notice that each step is given a capital letter (A, B, C, etc.).

LIST IN TIME ORDER

A. Collect used things in good condition

B. Clean the items and store them in the garage

C. Decide on a day and time for your sale

D. Decide on the prices and mark a price on each item

E. Make signs to advertise

P. Put signs around the neighborhood

G. Get change from a bank

H. Arrange items on tables in your driveway or yard I. Be prepared to bargain

This list is almost a time-order outline. It just needs a title and a topic sentence to be complete. A topic sentence is a special sentence at the beginning of every paragraph that tells the reader what the topic of the paragraph is. You will learn more about topic sentences in Unit 4. Until then, we will suggest topic sentences for you.

To summarize, these are the steps in making an outline:

1. Brainstorm a list.

2. Edit the list.

• Combine related ideas.

• Cross out repeated ideas.

• Cross out unnecessary ideas.

3. Organize the list.

• Give each step a capital letter.

4. Add a title and a topic sentence.

Here is the student's completed outline. Notice these points;

• The title is centered at the top.

• The topic sentence is below the title.

• The five steps are listed under the topic sentence and have capital letters A, B, C, and so on.

MODEL OUTLINE

Time Order

Title:

Topic Sentence:

How to Have a Successful Garage Sale It's easy to have a successful garage sale if you prepare for it ahead of time.

A. Collect used things in good condition

B. Clean the items and store them in the garage

C. Decide on a day and time for your sale

D. Decide on the prices and mark a price on each item

E. Make signs to advertise

F. Put signs around the neighborhood

G. Get change from a bank

H. Arrange items on tables in your driveway or yard I. Be prepared to bargain

PRACTICE:

Making an Outline

Work by yourself, with a partner, or with a group. Turn back to your revised list on page 37 on cleaning up after a party.

1. Organize the list.

• Give each idea a capital letter.

2. Look at the outline form below. Write the title on the top line in the center.

3. Read the topic sentence that is provided.

4. Write your steps below. (You may have more or fewer steps than in the form.)

Title:

Topic Sentence:

How to

Cleaning your house after a party is not fun, but it's easier if you do it step by step.

Unit 2

A transition signal is a word or phrase that shows how one idea is related to another idea. When you see the word finally, you know that the last idea is coming. The phrase for example is also a transition signal. It shows that the next sentence is going to be an example of the idea before it.

In a paragraph giving instructions, you should use time-order transition signals. They tell your reader what to do first, second, and so on. It is important to use transition signals when you write instructions to make the order of the steps clear.

Time-order transition signals include the words and phrases in this chart:

TIME-ORDER TRANSITION SIGNALS

First,...

In the morning,...

First of all,...

In the afternoon,...

Second,...

In the evening,...

Third,...

At night,...

Next,...

After that,...

Before an earthquake,...

Then ...

During an earthquake,...

Finally,...

After an earthquake,...

Transition signals are usually placed at the beginning of a sentence. They are followed by a comma. Then is not followed by a comma; it is an exception.

Work by yourself or with a partner.

A. Turn back to the model paragraph on page 34. Circle the time-order transition signals.

B. Each group of sentences below has a topic sentence (sentence 1) followed by several steps.

1. First, number the steps in the correct time order.

2. Then write two of the four groups of sentences as paragraphs.

• Copy the title in the middle of your paper.

• Copy the topic sentence. This will be the first sentence of the paragraph, so don't forget to indent it.

Time-Order

Transition

Signals

PRACTICE

Time-Order Transition Signals

• Copy the remaining sentences in order.

• Add a time-order transition signal to some steps in each paragraph.

1. JET LAG1

_J_ Frequent flyers recommend these steps to prevent jet lag.

_ During the flight, don't drink alcohol or coffee.

2 Eat a high-carbohydrate meal before your flight.

_ Don't nap during the day when you arrive.

_ Go to bed early your first night in the new time zone.

Paragraph:

Jet Lag

Frequent flyers recommend these steps to prevent jet la^. of all,

eat a high-carbohydrate meal before your flight. Second,...

2. HOW TO DRIVE YOUR TEACHER CRAZY

1 It's easy to drive your teacher crazy if you follow these simple directions.

_ Always come to class at least five minutes late.

_ Yawn and look at your watch as often as possible during the class.

_ Make a lot of noise when you enter the classroom.

_ At least five minutes before the end of class, slam your books shut and stare at the door.

(continued on the next page) 'jet lag: tiredness caused by travel through several time zones

3. HOW TO TRAIN YOUR DOG

1 Training your dog to sit and stay requires these five steps.

_ Give the command "sit," and push down gently on the dog's back.

2 Put your dog on your left side, and hold the leash in your right hand.

_ At the same time you are pushing down, pull up gently on the leash to keep the dog's head up. (Don't add a transition word here.)

_ Return to the dog's side, and praise it generously.

_ Remain at a distance for five seconds.

_ Move one or two steps away from it, and give the command

"sit-stay."

4. HOW TO CHECK THE OIL

1 Every driver should know how to check the oil in his or her car.

__Push the clean dipstick1 all the way into its holder.

__Lift up the hood and lock it open.

__Add oil if the oil mark is below the "fill" line.

__Pull out the dipstick, and wipe it clean.

__Pull it out again, and check the oil mark.

__Replace the dipstick, and close the hood.

'dipstick: the long metal stick that shows the level of the engine oil

FS3HSEEF1 How to Clean Your House after a Party

Work by yourself. Then work with a partner to edit each other's writing.

1. Write a paragraph titled How to Clean Your House after a Party. Follow the oudine you developed on page 39.

2. Follow the same steps for writing and editing your paragraph as you followed in Unit 1 (pages 16-17). Use the Paragraph Checklist to check your work.

PARAGRAPH CHECKLIST

FORM

Check the paragraph form. (Does the paragraph look like the model on page 4?)

ORGANIZATION

Does the paragraph begin with a topic sentence? ^J Are the steps in time order? [J Are there time-order transition signals?

GRAMMAR AND MECHANICS

Q [J Check the capital letters. Check the spelling.

Is there a period at the end of all the sentences?

SENTENCE STRUCTURE

Check the sentences. Do they have at least one subject and one verb, and do they express a complete thought?

FORM

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Brainstorming

Brainstorming

Tap Directly Into Your Creative Mind... And Easily Access YOUR Million-Dollar Ideas Ideas are the lifeblood of success... and the best ideas originate with brainstorming. Brainstorming can help you successfully fix any problem, build any business, generate any plan, or develop any story. But the problem is that most people have no clue how to effectively brainstorm - either by themselves or with groups. You can waste a lot of time coming up with old, boring ideas that won't work... and the whole time you actually believe that you are brainstorming.

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  • rosamunda brown
    How to clean your house after a party writing?
    8 years ago

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