Introducing People

2. __He speaks three languages fluently. (_

7. __Enjoys many sports, especially soccer. (_

Subjects and Every sentence must have at least one subject and one verb in order to be Yerbs a sentence. Some sentences must have other parts in order to express a complete thought. The man bought is not a sentence because it does not express a complete thought. We need to know what he bought.

Subjects and verbs are the most important parts of a sentence. In English, the subject of a sentence is always expressed except in a command: Hurry! (We know that the subject is "you.")

The subject tells who or what did something. It is a noun or pronoun.

My roommate lost the keys to his car. (Who lost the keys?—my r oommate)

The car hit the pedestrian.

(What hit the pedestrian?—the car)

Skiing and snowboarding are my favorite winter sports.

(What are my favorite winter sports?—skiing and snowboarding)

Unit 1

The verb often tells the action. However, sometimes a verb doesn't tell an action. Sometimes it just links the subject with the rest of the sentence.

Action verbs

The car hit the pedestrian. My family lives in a two-bedroom apartment. My roommate lost his car keys. His girlfriend found them.

Linking verbs

Snow skiing is my favorite winter sport.

I feel sick.

You look hungry.

I am lucky that my roommate i§ a good cook.

The most common linking verbs are be, become, feel, look, seem, smell, sound, and taste.


| Work with a partner.

Finding Subjects | a Underline the subjects with one line. and Verbs '

2. Underline the verbs with two lines.

3. Write S or V above each underlined word. Examples:

My little brother is in the fifth grade.

He watches TV and does his homework at the same time.

1. My best friend is single.

2. He likes his job but hates his boss.

3. He didn't go to work yesterday.

4. This semester, he is studying English and computer science.

5. He and I don't have any classes together.

6. He speaks and understands English very well.

7. On weekends, he and his friends play soccer.

8. He doesn't have a steady girlfriend yet.

End-of-Sentence Punctuation

A sentence normally ends with a period. If a sentence is a question, use a question mark.

Where do you live?

Are you married or single?

We don't have any homework tonight, do we?

You can use an exclamation point afterwords, phrases, or sentences to show strong emotion and after an urgent command.


What a nice surprise! We were really scared! Help!

Work by yourself or with a partner. Place a period, a question mark, or an exclamation point at the end of each sentence.


How many languages do you speak p I speak only one #

1. How long has she been in the United States

2. She has been in the United States for only six months

3. In English, the subject is always expressed except in commands

(continued on the next page)

A sentence ends with a period (.), an exclamation point (!), or a question mark (?).


End-of-Sentence Punctuation

4. Stop that robber

5. Did anyone see the accident

6. The airport was so crowded that we almost missed our plane

7. Are you going to hand in your homework

8. You're going to hand in your homework, aren't you

9. It's an earthquake

10. Get under your desks


Punctuating Sentences

©The Wale Disney Company

Work by yourself or with a partner.

1. Decide where sentences begin and end in this paragraph. (There are fourteen sentences.)

2. Add punctuation at the end of each sentence.

3. Change the first letter of each new sentence to a capital.

Introducing Myself My name is Mickey Mouse ."Jj^live in a place called Disneyland my father's name is Walt Disney he was a famous cartoonist a cartoonist is a person who draws cartoon characters like me i was born about seventy years ago in a movie studio in Hollywood, California i first appeared in a cartoon in 1928 the name of the cartoon was "Steamboat Willie" at first I appeared in cartoons with Minnie Mouse soon my friends Donald Duck and Goofy joined me in addition to starring in cartoons, I also work at Disneyland there I stand around and smile a lot I also pose for pictures with visitors i enjoy my job a lot because I make children all over the world happy

Capitalization: In English, there are many rules for using capital letters. Here are five Five Rules important ones.



1. The first word in a sentence My name is Mickey Mouse.

2. The pronoun I At first I appeared in cartoons alone.

3. Names of people and their titles but not a title without a name exception: A title without a name is sometimes capitalized if it refers to a specific person.

King Faisal President Yeltsin Professor Indiana Jones Mr. and Mrs. Homer Simpson

Have you met your math professor?

The President of the United States had dinner with the Emperor of Japan.

4. Nationalities, languages, religions, and ethnic groups

Vietnamese Jewish English Christian

Spanish Asian

Farsi Hispanic

Native American note: Don't capitalize school subjects except names of nationalities, languages, religions, and so forth.

calculus Russian history computer science Russian math French history Latin

5. Specific places you could find on a map

Lake Titicaca England the North Pole South America First Street Tiananmen Square

□H32BSH Work with a partner.

Capitalization (( ^Yrite your own examples for capitalization rules 3-5.

2. Ask your teacher for help with spelling, or use a dictionary.

Rule 3

a doctor _

a mayor or governor __

Rule 4

a language _

a nationality___

an ethnic group__

a religion _

Rule 5

an island _



Work by yourself or with a partner. Change the small letters to capital letters wherever necessary in the following paragraph.

nelson mandela my name is nelson mandela, and i have had. an unusual life, i have been both a prisoner and a president in my country. i was born in 1918 in the small village of qunu in the transkei, which is a large territory (like a state) in south africa. my father, henry mandela, was chief of our tribe, the tembus. as a child, i took care of the family's cattle and goats and fished in the bashee river near our village, i decided to become a lawyer because this seemed to be the best way to help my people, after i became a lawyer, i became the leader of a group of young africans who wanted to change the system of discrimination in our country, because of my political activities, i was arrested and sent to prison, i spent twenty-seven years in prison, i spent most of those years on roggen island, a cold, windy island in the atlantic ocean, the world didn't forget about me while i was in prison, however, i received important visitors, awards, and university degrees from all over the world, i also learned afrikaans, which is the language of white south africans. of course i also speak english and xhosa, which is the tembu language, at last, i was set free in 1990, and i became the president of south africa in 1994. now i will try to bring peace, democracy, and prosperity to all of my country's people.

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Business Correspondence

Business Correspondence

24 chapters on preparing to write the letter and finding the proper viewpoint how to open the letter, present the proposition convincingly, make an effective close how to acquire a forceful style and inject originality how to adapt selling appeal to different prospects and get orders by letter proved principles and practical schemes illustrated by extracts from 217 actual letter.

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