In this unit, you will learn to give reasons and use examples to support your reasons. Read the model paragraph below. Then answer the questions.


Using Examples

Costa Rica

Costa Rica is a great place to spend a vacation for two reasons. First of all, Costa Rica has an excellent system of national parks where visitors can observe nature. For example, in Tortuguero National Park, visitors can watch sea turtles come ashore1 to lay their eggs in the sand. Then they can come back several months later to see the new babies crawl down to the sea. In Santa Rosa National Park, visitors can see unusual birds such as toucans and quetzals and exotic animals such as spider monkeys. Second, Costa Rica has many beautiful beaches. For instance, the beaches at Manuel Antonio National Park are among the most beautiful in the world, and the beaches on Canoa and Cocos Islands offer perfect conditions for snorkeling and scuba diving. Indeed, Costa Rica is a wonderful place to go if you love the outdoors.

Ashore: on the shore, on the beach questions about the model

1. What is the title of this paragraph?

2. What is the topic sentence? What information does it give you?

3. How many supporting sentences are there?

4. How many reasons are given? What words introduce these reasons?

5. How many examples are given for each reason? What words tell you that these are examples?

6. What is the concluding sentence?


| Complete the outline of the model paragraph. Use another piece of paper Outlining if necessary.

Reasons and Examples


Topic Sentence:

Reason A:

Example 1 : _ Example 2:_ Concluding Sentence:.

When you write a topic sentence such as Costa Rica is a great place to visit, or Women should not be jet fighter pilots, you need to support it with reasons. You need to explain why Costa Rica is a great place to visit, or why women should not be jet fighter pilots. The writer of the model paragraph gave two main reasons why tourists enjoy visiting Costa Rica:

1. It has many national parks where tourists can see nature.

2. It has beautiful beaches.

After you state your reasons, you need to support them. A good way to support reasons is to give specific examples. Specific examples can be practice




Topic Sentence: Reason: Example: Example: Reason: Example: Example: Reason: Example: Example: Reason: Example: Example: Concluding Sentence:

names of specific people (John Lennon), places (the lunchroom at your place of work), or things (a Honda Civic). Examples can also be specific numbers (25,000 people) or amounts of money ($5.23). Examples can be specific days such as Hanukkah, New Year's Day, or July 4. Examples can also be events from your personal experience.

In the model paragraph, each of the reasons has two supporting examples. The examples are specific. They are the actual names of places: Tortuguero National Park, Santa Rosa National Park, Manuel Antonio National Park, Canoa Island, and Cocos Island. Other specific examples in the paragraph are the names of birds (toucans and quetzals) and of an animal (spider monkeys).

Work with a partner. Think of at least one specific example for each reason in the following outlines. If you can, give two examples.

Outline A

Small cars are more economical than bic\ cars,

A. They don't use much gasoline

1. A Honda Civic ¿jets forty miles per gallon,

B. Maintenance costs are lower. 1.

C. Repair costs are lower. 1.

D. Insurance is cheaper. 1.

You save money on gas, maintenance, repairs, and insurance when you own a small car.

Topic Sentence: Reason: Example: Example: Reason: Example: Example: Reason: Example: Example: Concluding Sentence:

Topic Sentence: Reason: Example: Example: Reason: Example: Example:

Outline B

chose this college for three reasons.

A. The location is convenient. 1.

B. The classes are small. 1.

C. The cost is affordable. 1.

I decided to attend the College of Marin because it is convenient,_

small, and affordable._

For the last two outlines, think of your own reasons.

Outline C

Sloppy Joe's is the worst (best) fast-food restaurant in town._

Reason: Example: Example: Concluding Sentence:

Never (always) eat at Sloppy Joe's because it is

Topic Sentence: Reason: Example: Example: Reason: Example: Example: Reason: Example: Example: Concluding Sentence:

Outline D

My Uncle Charlie is the stingiest (most generous) person in the wor\d.

In conclusion, if you are invited out by Uncle Charlie, be sure to bring your wallet with you (leave your wallet at home)._

Transition Signals with Reasons

When you give reasons, you should introduce each one with a transition signal. You can use the listing-order transition signals: first, first of all, second, third, finally, and so forth.

a. First of all. Costa Rica has an excellent system of national parks. Second. Costa Rica has many beautiful beaches.

You can also put the transition word in the subject (without commas), like this:

b. The first reason is ... The second reason is ...

There are two ways to complete the b sentences above.

With a noun phrase: The first reason is the excellent system of national parks.

The second reason is Costa Rica's beautiful beaches.

With a sentence connected by that:

The first reason is that Costa Rica has an excellent system of national parks.

The second reason is that Costa Rica has many beautiful beaches.

Remember not to use a comma when the transition signal is included in the subject.


| Work with a partner or a group.

^uith^Reasonf1^ ^ere are t^iree more reasons that Costa Rica is a good place to visit. Rewrite each reason twice to add transition signals.

1. Use a listing-order transition signal as in the a examples above. Be sure to use a comma.

2. Include the transition signal in the subject as in the b examples. Don't use a comma.

Reason 3:

San José, the capital, has a pleasant climate.

(continued on the next page)

Reason 4:

Hotels and restaurants are inexpensive.

Reason 5:

The people are friendly to tourists.

Transition Signals with Examples

There are three transition signals used to introduce examples.

transition signals with examples

For example, For instance,

such as

For example, visitors can watch sea turtles come ashore to lay their eggs in the sand inTortuguero National Park.

For instance, the beaches at Manuel Antonio National Park are among the most beautiful in the world.

Visitors can see rare birds such as toucans and quetzals, and they can observe exotic animals such as spider monkeys.

For example and for instance have exacdy the same meaning and are used in exacdy the same way. Put them at the beginning of the sentence and put a comma after them. Examples introduced by for example and for instance must be in complete sentences.

Wrong: The restaurant specializes in seafood, for example, fresh lobster and salmon.

Right: The restaurant specializes in seafood. For example, it serves fresh lobster and salmon.

Such as is different from for example and for instance. Such as is followed by a noun. It comes in the middle of a sentence and does not need a comma.

Tourist attractions such as the Eiffel Tower and museums such as the Louvre make Paris a favorite tourist city.

Remember these punctuation rules:

Use commas after for example and for instance. Do not use a comma with such as.

□zoma for example, for instance, such as

1. In Sao Paulo, there is a mix of architecture. You can see traditional architecture in buildings_the Martinelli Building and

Banco de Estado de Sao Paulo.

2. There are also many modern buildings in Sao Paulo._

the Banco Sumitomo and Conjunto Nacional are very modern in design.

3. Tokyo's gardens are very beautiful._Hibiya Park is a popular place for tourists to visit.

4. San Francisco has several ethnic1 neighborhoods_

North Beach (Italian), the Mission District (Hispanic), and Chinatown (Chinese).

'ethnic: of different cultures, races, and nationalities

Fill in the blanks with for example, for instance, or such as. Add commas where necessary.


Denmark has many attractions for children such as Tivoli Gardens and Legoland.

5. When you visit the ethnic neighborhoods of Miami, you feel that you are in a foreign country._in Little Havana you can easily imagine that you are in Cuba.

6. Small Caribbean islands_Trinidad, Tobago, and St.

Kitts are popular honeymoon locations.

7. Summers are much cooler in San Francisco than in Los Angeles.

_the average July temperature in San Francisco is about 65°F, but it is 85°F in Los Angeles.

8. Mexico has many luxury beach resorts_Cancun and


9. Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula is full of archaeological treasures. _the Mayan ruins near Merida are very well known.

Using Examples

Work first by yourself. Then edit your paragraph with a partner.

Write a paragraph from the outline that you developed in the activity on page 137.

1. Use the same topic sentence, and add a concluding sentence.

2. Use transition signals for your main points and for your examples. Try to use for example, for instance, and such as at least once.

3. Edit your paragraph with a partner, using the Paragraph Checklist on the next page.

4. Write a neat final draft to hand in to your teacher.

Stating Reasons and Using Examples paragraph checklist form

^ Check the paragraph form. (Does the paragraph look like the model on page 4?)


Q □ Does the paragraph begin with a topic sentence and end with a concluding sentence?

Does the paragraph have examples to support each main point?

H Are the main points and examples introduced by transition signals?

Does the paragraph have unity? (no irrelevant sentences)

grammar and mechanics

I j Check the capital letters. □ r] Check the spelling.

[j Check the commas. ~ ~ Is there a period at the end of all the sentences?

sentence structure

Check the sentences. Do they have at least one subject and one verb, and do they express a complete thought?

Does the paragraph contain both simple and compound sentences?

Q] " Check for comma splices and run-ons.

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