Sentence Structure

In Unit 1, you learned to write simple sentences. However, if you write only simple sentences, your writing will seem choppy and childish. Using other kinds of sentences will make your writing seem more sophisticated and mature. One other kind of sentence is a compound sentence.

Remember that a simple sentence has only one SV combination. A compound sentence has two SV combinations joined by a comma and a coordinating conjunction.

A compound sentence is two simple sentences connected by a comma and a coordinating conjunction.

Here is the formula for a compound sentence:

Simple sentence

»

coordinating

simple sentence

conjunction

Notice that a compound sentence has a comma before the coordinating conjunction.

A coordinating conjunction is a type of connecting word. There are only seven coordinating conjunctions in English. In this unit, you will practice four of them: and, but, or, and so.

These are compound sentences:

Coordinating

Simple Sentence Conjunction Simple Sentence

Coordinating

Simple Sentence Conjunction Simple Sentence

My family goes camping every summer,

and

we usually have fun.

Last year we went camping at Blue Lake,

but

we had a terrible time.

Next year we will take a cruise,

or

we may just stay at home.

We want to go to Hawaii soon,

so

we need to save money.

It is possible to connect three simple sentences. (Don't connect more than three, however, and don't use the same conjunction twice.)

Simple sentence, but simple sentence, so simple sentence

Compound Sentences

We love to camp, but last year we didn't enjoy it, so this year we will do something different during our vacation.

We love to camp, and last year we had a good time, and we want to do it again this year, but wo may go to Disney World instead.

Compound Sentences versus Simple

Sentences with Compound Verbs

Caution: Do not confuse a compound sentence with a simple sentence that has a compound verb. Remember that a simple subject has only one SV combination. However, the subjects in a simple sentence can be compound (My brother and I won). The verbs can also be compound (We swam and fished). A compound sentence has two SV combinations. Compare the two pairs of sentences below. The first of each pair of sentences is simple and doesn't need a comma. The second one is compound and requires a comma.

Simple Sentence with Compound Verb:

Compound Sentence:

Simple Sentence with Compound Verb: Compound Sentence:

Simple Sentence with Compound Verb: Compound Sentence:

My family goes camping every summer SVV and usually has fun.

My family goes camping every summer, SV, and SV and we usually have fun.

Last year we went camping but SVV

had a terrible time.

Last year we went camping, but SV, but SV

we had a terrible time.

Next year we will take a cruise SVV

or go to a Club Med.

Next year we will take a cruise, or SV, or SV

we might go to a Club Med.

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Simple versus

Compound

Sentences

Work by yourself or with a partner. The sentences in this exercise explain some of the rules of American football.

1. Underline the subjects with one line and the verbs with two lines.

2. Write "simple" or "compound" in the space at the left of each sentence.

Example:

simple

One team kicks the ball to the other team to start the game.

The quarterback is the most important player on the team.

The quarterback can throw the ball or run with it.

(continued on the next page)

3 ._The quarterback can throw the ball, but the other play ers can only run with it.

4 ._One team carries or throws the ball across the goal line of the other team to score a touchdown.

5 ._Then the other team gets the ball, and it is their turn to try to make a touchdown.

6 ._The offensive team can also kick the ball between the goal posts of the other team to score points.

7 ._This play is called a "field goal."

8 ._A touchdown is six points, and a field goal is three points.

9 ._A football is oval in shape and is made from pigskin.

10 ._Football players wear helmets on their heads and pro tect their shoulders with strong shoulder pads.

Coordinating When they are used to form a compound sentence, the coordinating con-Conjunctions: junctions have these meanings:

<ind, but, or, anc^ connects ^Q sentences with similar ideas; the sentences can be

SO positive or negative.

My roommate is an art student, and her boyfriend plays in a rock band.

She doesn't like rock music, and he doesn't like art.

but connects two sentences with contrasting or opposite ideas. She likes classical music, but she doesn't like rock. She also likes country music, but he hates it.

or connects two sentences that express alternatives or choices.

Every Friday night, they go to a classical concert, or they visit an art gallery.

Then on Saturday night, he practices with his band, or they go to hear another rock group.

so connects a reason and a result

Reason Result

They both like jazz, so they go to jazz concerts together.

He works every night, so they don't go out very often.

He can't practice at his apartment, so he uses hers.

Work by yourself or with a partner.

1. Analyze each sentence in the following paragraphs. Underline the subjects with one line and the verbs with two lines.

2. Write simple or compound in the numbered spaces.

3. Then write the formula for each sentence: SV, (and) SV or SVV ok SSV, and so forth.

4. Add a comma to each compound sentence. Sentence number six is a command, so the subjects are not expressed. (You will need to add a total of five commas in the two paragraphs.)

How to Clear Your Ears in an Airplane 'Sometimes passengers' ears hurt in an airplane. 2This pain can be quite strong. 3It is caused by unequal air pressure outside and inside your ears. 4The air pressure in the airplane may be at 15,000 feet but the air pressure inside your ears is still at ground level. 5Airlines recommend the following techniques to stop the pain. 6Pinch your nose closed with your fingers and pretend to blow your nose. 7This action makes the pressure equal and usually stops the pain. 8You can also yawn several times or you can swallow hard. 'Children can chew gum and babies can suck on a bottle or a pacifier.

: '¿¿ti&t. ___s:^Zs2uM£«stä.'»-: ...» i ¿¿¿¡i&iiS^JiL-.¿» tUSjffif&rtsjUJMOifeflMiLifa

How to Cure Hiccoughs l0My father has an interesting method of stopping hiccoughs. "First, he takes a glass and fills it with water. l2The water can be warm or cold. l3Next, he takes the glass in one hand and pinches his nose with the other hand. uThen he bends forward at his waist and drinks the water in very small sips from the opposite side of the glass. lsThis is a little difficult to do but it usually works.

Work with a partner.

A. I. Connect the two simple sentences in each pair to make a compound sentence. Connect them with and, but, or, or so— whichever best fits the meaning. (There may be more than one possible choice.)

1. Be sure to add commas. Example:

Canada has two official languages. Government documents are printed in both English and French.

Canada has two official languages, so government documents are_

printed in both English and French._

LANGUAGE FACTS

1. There are several hundred languages in the world. Not all of them have a written form.

2. Languages use symbols for sounds. They use symbols for ideas. (Use or.)

3. English uses sound symbols. Chinese uses idea symbols.

4. Chinese is spoken by more people. English is spoken in more countries.

5. Russian is the third most spoken language in the world. Spanish is the fourth.

6. There are about one million words in English. Most people only use about ten thousand of them.

7. Chinese has many different dialects. Chinese people cannot always understand each other.

8. French used to be the language of international diplomacy. Now English is used more often.

9. International companies are growing. They will soon need more bilingual workers.

10. Young people should know a second language. They will be at a disadvantage in the international job market.

B. Make compound sentences by adding a SV combination to each of the following.

Example:

A good boss has a sense of humor, and he (or she) is always fair . 1. A good husband comes home from work in a cheerful mood, and

2. A good wife has a part-time job, but

3. An ideal teacher gives take-home tests, or

4. Good parents want to raise healthy children, so

C. Write compound sentences of your own. Use each of these coordinating conjunctions once: and, but, or, and so.

8. A best friend

Comma One serious sentence error that writers sometimes make is called a

Splices comma splice. It happens when a comma instead of a period is put between two separate sentences. This mistake happens most often when the two sentences are related in meaning.

Comma splice: My uncle has his own business, he sells auto parts. Comma splice: I was sick, I couldn't come to class yesterday.

In these two examples, two simple sentences are incorrectly joined by a comma. There are two ways to fix comma splices:

1. Change the comma to a period.

My uncle has his own business. He sells auto parts. I was sick. I couldn't come to class yesterday.

2. Keep the comma and add a coordinating conjunction. My uncle has his own business, and he sells auto parts.

I was sick, so I couldn't come to class yesterday.

PRACTICE:

Fixing Comma Splices

Work with a partner.

1. Find the comma splices in the following sentences. Mark an X next to these sentences. Some sentences are correct.

2. Correct the mistakes. Use both methods 1 and 2 above.

HOW TO HAVE A SAFE VACATION

Example:

X Don't leave valuables in your hotel room, put them in the hotel safe.

Don't leave valuables in your hotel room. Put them in the hotel safe. OR Don't leave valuables in your hotel room, but put them in the hotel safe.

_ 1. At airports and in hotels, watch your luggage at all times, don't let it out of your sight.

2. Stay alert, and be aware of your surroundings.

3. Don't pick up hitchhikers, and don't stop to help someone in trouble.

4. Don't stop when someone bumps your car from behind, drive to a police station.

5. At night, park in a well-lighted place, and lock your car.

6. Use traveler's checks, carry only a small amount of cash.

7. At night, don't walk close to dark doorways, walk close to the street.

8. Cross the street, join a group of people, or go into a store if you think someone is following you.

9. At night, always go with a group, don't go into dangerous areas.

10. Keep your car doors locked and your windows rolled up at all times.

Work with a partner or by yourself.

1. Combine the sentences in each group to make one sentence. There may be more than one possible correct way to combine each group. Some of your new sentences will be simple, and some will be compound. For example, sentence 2 will be a compound sentence: First, peel 6 apples, and cut them into slices. Sentence 3 will be a simple sentence: Don't make the slices too thin or too thick. If you need to review the use of and and or to connect words and phrases, turn back to pages 20-21.

2. Write the fifteen sentences as a paragraph. Add time-order transition signals to some of the sentences. Don't start every sentence with a transition signal. Add them to sentences that give a major new step. Discuss and decide with your classmates which sentences give major new steps.

1. Here's how to make a delicious apple pie for your family.

b. Cut them into slices.

3. a. Don't make the slices too thin, b. Don't make the slices too thick.

4. a. Don't use apples that are sweet, b. Don't use apples that are soft.

5. a. Mix the apples with 1 cup of sugar.

b. Mix the apples with lA teaspoon of spice.

6. a. You can use cinnamon as a spice.

b. You can use nutmeg as a spice. (Choice)

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Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

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Responses

  • Eliisa
    How to bulild often the only ones available into an academic sentences?
    8 years ago
  • teigan
    Is it safe to start your sentence with "but" in academic writing?
    2 years ago

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