Sentence Structure and Grammar

Adjective Clauses with who, which, and that

In Unit 5, you studied dependent clauses beginning with words such as because, when, after, and before. These clauses are adverb clauses because they act like adverbs. That is, they modify a verb.

There is another kind of dependent clause that begins with words such as who, which, and that. These are adjective clauses because they act like adjectives. That is, they modify nouns.

In the following sentences, the adjective clause is underlined with a broken line. There is a circle around who, which, or that and an arrow points to the noun that the adjective clause describes. Notice that the adjective clause comes directly after the noun it describes.

Rachel Kingsley is a person(whg)abuses drugsjniiilcshQj. Rachel Kingsley is a pers^r^^yhuses drugsjand alcohol. The foster parents^vhc^ake care_of_Gregqfy want to adopt him. The foster parents^t^)take_care of Gregory want to adopt him. A box"jwjiici|_was in the Irving room contained marijuana. A boxmiatWas in the living room contained marijuana.

Here are some things to know about adjective clauses:

I. Adjective clauses begin with the words who, which, and that (and others).

who is used for people which is used for things that is used for both people and things

2. The adjective clause comes right after the noun it describes. This means that the adjective clause can come in the middle of an independent clause.

3. Commas are sometimes used with adjective clauses, and sometimes not. (You will learn about this rule later.)

Work with a partner.

a. Underline the adjective clause with a broken line.

1. Circle who, which, or that.

2. Draw an arrow to the noun that the adjective clause describes. Example:

Gregory Kingsley s twelve_years_old, wants to divorce his mother.

1. His mother, who neglected him and his brothers, wants to keep him.

2. He wants to be adopted by the Russes, who are his foster parents.

3. Foster parents are people that take care of abused or neglected children.

4. A box that contained marijuana was in the living room.

5. The children's mother smoked marijuana, which is an illegal drug,

6. The boys' father, who did not live with their mother, did not want the children either.

7. This case, which was the first child-parent divorce in the United States, received a lot of attention.

8. In my opinion, parents who don't take care of their children are criminals.

9. The lawyer that represented Mrs. Kingsley was a woman.

10. The judge listened carefully to both lawyers, who spoke clearly and forcefully.

b. Write who or which in the space in each sentence. (Do not use that in this exercise.)

ARRANGED MARRIAGES

1. In arranged marriages, are quite common in many countries, your husband or wife is chosen by someone else.

2. Sometimes the parents, _

anyone, choose a marriage partner.

know their child better than

3. Sometimes they hire a matchmaker,_is paid to find a suitable person.

4. The two young people must be very nervous at their first meeting, _sometimes takes place in the bride's home.

5. In some cultures, a young man or woman-doesn't like the parents' choice may reject him or her.

6. In other cultures, a young man or woman __rejects the parents' choice brings dishonor to both families.

7. Marrying "for love," __is the custom in some cultures, does not guarantee happiness.

8. The divorce rate is higher among people__ marry for love.

9. People_listened only to their hearts sometimes wish that they had listened to their heads.

Punctuating Sometimes you use commas with adjective clauses and sometimes you

Adjective don't. Here are the rules:

Clauses

1. Use commas before and after an adjective clause if the noun it describes is a specific person or thing. A noun is specific if it has a name.

Rachel Kingsley, who uses drugs, is not a good parent.

Young children shouldn't see Jurassic Park, which has a lot of violence.

2. Don't use commas if the noun it describes is general. A noun is general if there is no name.

A person who uses drugs is not a good parent.

Young children shouldn't see a movie which has a lot of violence.

3. If the noun is general, you may substitute that for who and which. Don't use commas if the adjective clause begins with that.

A person that uses drugs is not a good parent.

Young children shouldn't see a movie that has a lot of violence.

Punctuating Adjective Clauses

Work with a partner.

1. Underline the adjective clause in each sentence.

2. Draw an arrow to the noun it modifies.

3. Add commas if necessary.

1. A country that has a king or queen is called a monarchy.

2. England which has a queen is a monarchy.

3. A pediatrician is a doctor who takes care of children.

4. Dr. Jones who is our neighbor is a pediatrician.

5. Saudi Arabia and Singapore which punish criminals in public have very little crime.

6. Countries that punish criminals in public have very little crime.

7. Coca-Cola is a carbonated1 drink which is sold all over the world.

8. Coca-Cola which is sold all over the world is a carbonated drink.

9. Millions of people drink Coca-Cola which is sold all over the world.

10. Students that have studied regularly will do well on the final exam.

11. Gabriela and Trinh who have studied regularly will do well on the final exam.

12. The car that I bought yesterday broke down today.

13. My new Supernova Sportmobile which I bought yesterday broke down today.

14. My birthday is next Monday which is a holiday.

15. A holiday that children especially love is Halloween.

Writing

Adjective

Clauses

Here's how to write sentences with adjective clauses. Remember that an adjective clause is a dependent clause. Therefore, you combine it with an independent clause to make a complete sentence.

'carbonated: containing CO2

practice

Sentences with Adjective Clauses

Work with a partner. Choose an adjective clause from the list on the right and combine it with an independent clause from the left. Several different combinations are possible. Be sure to put the adjective clause directly after the noun it describes, and add commas if necessary. Write your new sentences on the lines below.

INDEPENDENT CLAUSES

1. They gave their boss a Rolex watch.

2. The purse is hers.

3. Sandy moved to New York last month.

4. She is living in an apartment.

ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

a. who owns a house on every continent, his own private jet, and two yachts b. which is on the thirteenth floor c. who was celebrating his 50th birthday

5. On our honeymoon we stayed at the Bellagio.

6. My Uncle John has everything.

7. A person has everything.

d. who has love e. who is my best friend f. which is lying under the chair g. which is the newest hotel in Las Vegas

IJiM-HH

Sentences with Adjective Clauses

In this exercise, combine two simple sentences to make a complex sentence containing an adjective clause.

Work with a partner.

1. Read the two sentences in each pair. Which noun in the first sentence is the second sentence talking about? Is it a person or a thing? Find it and underline it.

2. Change the second sentence into an adjective clause by crossing out the subject and substituting who, which, or that.

3. Move the new adjective clause to its correct position (right after the underlined noun) in the first sentence.

4. Add commas if necessary.

Examples:

that (which)

This is a story.^ appeared in the newspaper recently.

This is a story that appeared in the newspaper recently._

OR This is a stop/ which appeared in the newspaper recently._

Michael Fay was punished by caning.' was an American high school student in Singapore.

Michael Fay, who was an American high school student in Singapore, was punished by caning._

1. Michael Fay attended an international high school. He lived in Singapore with his mother.

'caning: beating with a thick bamboo stick

2. Singapore has strict laws. Singapore has very little crime.

3. Michael Fay spray-painted some cars. The cars were parked on the street.

4. He went in front of a judge. The judge sentenced him to six strokes with a cane.

5. Some people don't agree with punishments. Some punishments cause pain.

6. Other people said Michael should be punished by Singapore's laws. Michael broke Singapore's laws.

practice

I Work with a partner or with a group.

^nHl^AiUpcthipCeS ' * story on next page. This is a true story. It happened in 1992,

Clauses LĀ°uisiana> which is a state in the southern part of the United States.

Make sure that you understand all the words. Discuss it with your group.

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