Revieiv of Simple and Compound Sentences
Remember the formulas for simple and compound sentences: Simple: SV
Compound: SV, coordinating conjunction SV
Remember that each SV combination can have a compound subject (SSV) or a compound verb (SW).
Remember also the comma difference between a simple sentence with a compound verb and a compound sentence. A simple sentence has no comma before the coordinating conjunction, but a compound sentence does.
Simple sentence with a compound verb:
He works during the day and goes to school at night.
He works during the day, and he goes to school at night.
Review of Simple and Compound Sentences
Work with a partner.
a. Write S if the sentence is simple and C if the sentence is compound. Add commas where they are needed.
1. The summers in the Midwest are hot and humid.
2. Every evening it was too hot to sleep so my sisters and I played outside until after dark.
3. Our parents sat on the front porch and watched us play our children's games.
4. We played games such as hide-and-seek and tag or we just sat around and told stories.
5. We also caught fireflies in glass jars and watched them shine in the dark like tiny flashlights.
6. My sisters were afraid of most bugs but they loved to catch fireflies.
7. We usually had to go to bed at nine o'clock but on really warm evenings we could stay up until ten.
8. Between nine and ten o'clock our mother or our father told us to come inside to get ready for bed.
9. Sometimes it was still hot in our small bedroom so our parents let us sleep outside in the backyard.
.10. In those days, parents didn't worry about crime and no one locked their front doors at night.
b. Underline the compound sentences in the following paragraph. Add commas wherever they are needed.
Teenagers find many ways to drive their parents crazy. First they may dye their hair purple or they may shave their heads bald.1 They may also shred their new sixty-dollar-designer jeans tattoo their skin or wear rings in their noses. In addition they spend hours at the shopping mall and on the phone. They have time to watch TV but they don't have time to do their homework. Also they're always too busy to clean their rooms but they're never too busy to "clean" the refrigerator by eating everything in it. Finally they are old enough to drive but too young to pay for gas. They are usually broke8 so they always return the family car with an empty gas tank. It's hard to be teenager but it's even harder to be the parent of one.
Run -OU In Unit 2, you learned about errors called comma splices. Remember that
Sentences a comma splice error is two sentences incorrectly joined by a comma alone.
Comma Splice: My roommate wants to look like Arnold Schwarzenegger, he spends hours in the gym lifting weights.
A similar error occurs when students write two sentences together with no punctuation at all. This is called a run-on sentence.
Run-on: My roommate wants to look like Arnold Schwarzenegger he spends hours in the gym lifting weights.
'bald: no hair at all 2broke: having no money
Comma splices and run-on sentences are especially easy mistakes to make when the second sentence begins with the transition words then and also. Be careful to use a coordinating conjunction when you use these two words.
Comma Splice: Small dogs don't need much space, also they don't eat a lot.
Run-on: We helped our hosts clean up after the party then we went home.
Fixing Comma Splices and Run-on Sentences
There are two ways to fix run-ons and comma splices.
1. Put a period between the two sentences, making two separate sentences:
My roommate wants to look like Arnold Schwarzenegger. He spends hours in the gym lifting weights.
Small dogs don't need much space. Also, they don't eat a lot. We helped our hosts clean up after the party. Then we went home.
2. Make a compound sentence by adding a comma and a coordinating conjunction:
My roommate wants to look like Arnold Schwarzenegger, so he spends hours in the gym lifting weights.
Small dogs don't need much space, and they don't eat a lot. (Omit also.) We helped our hosts clean up after the party, and then we went home.
Fixing Comma Splices and Run-ons
Work with a partner.
1. Put an X in the space next to the sentences that are comma splices or run-ons.
2. Correct the sentences that you marked.
MORE ABOUT PETS
_ 1. Some people like cats, others prefer dogs.
2. Kittens are cute, also they like to play.
Listing Characteristics | 3. Dogs are good companions, and they can also protect you.
4. Dogs can bark at strangers they shouldn't bite them.
5. Lions are also good protectors, but they eat too much.
6. Penguins always wear tuxedos, they are good pets for people who like to go to fancy parties.
7. A pet elephant can fan you with his ears and spray you with his trunk, you won't need air-conditioning or a shower.
8. Goats eat lots of grass, so you will never have to mow your lawn.
9. A giraffe can reach things on high shelves, also it can see over the heads of people at parades.
10. Keep a boa constrictor2 as a pet if you enjoy being alone then no one will ever visit you.
MJAiW-^El Sentence Combining
Work by yourself or with a partner.
I. Combine the sentences in each group to make one sentence. Some of your sentences will be simple, and some will be compound. There may
'penguin: a bird that lives in Antarctica. It stands upright and has black and white feathers. 2boa constrictor: a very large snake be more than one possible correct way to combine each group. Do not change anything in the first sentence. Just copy it as it is.
2. Write the sentences as a paragraph. Add transition signals with each of the main points and with the concluding sentence. (Decide with your partner which sentences are main points. There are four main points.)
THE "WEAKER" SEX
1. Although it is often said that women are the weaker sex, women are actually superior to men in several ways. (Don't change this sentence.)
2. a. Women live longer than men.
b. Women stay healthier than men.
c. They do this in all countries of the world.
3. a. On the average, women live seven years longer than men. b. They do this in the United States.
4. a. This difference starts at birth.
b. This difference continues until old age.
5. a. There are 105 boys to every 100 girls at birth.
b. There are twice as many women as men at age 80. (Use but J
6. a. Women are better than men at things, b. These things involve the five senses.
(Change these things to that J
7. a. Women have a sharper sense of taste.
b. Women have a sharper sense of smell.
c. Women hear better than men.
8. a. Men are physically stronger than women, b. Women are mentally stronger.
9. a. For example, more men than women had emotional problems.
b. This happened in Wo rid War II.
c. This happened during air raids.1
d. This happened in London.
[air raids: military attacks in which bombs are dropped from airplanes
10. Men are more self-destructive than women. (Don't change this sentence.)
11. a. More men are murdered by other men. b. More men commit suicide.
12. a. Men drive more recklessly.
b. Men have twice as many fatal accidents as women. (Use so.)
13. a. Do you still believe?
b. Women are "the weaker sex."
(■Connect the two sentences with that. Do not use a comma. Your sentence will be a question, so put a question mark at the end.)
In Unit 3, you learned about adjectives and prepositional phrases. In this section, you will study adverbs.
The main job of an adverb is to modify a verb. Use an adverb when you want to tell more about an action. Adverbs answer the questions how? when? where? and how often?
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