Signals

Time Order

First,... First of all,... Second,... Third,... Next,... After that,... Then ... Finally,...

Space Order

On the right,... On the left,... In the center,... In the middle,...

Next to the

Between the_

Opposite the_

Near the_,

Under the_,

Above the_,

On one side of the_

On the other side of the

Conclusions

For these reasons,...

Listing

First,... First of all,... Second,... Third,... Fourth,... Also,... ...also... In addition,...

Reasons

The first reason is (that)... The second reason is (that) ... The most important reason is (that)...

Examples

Opinions

In my opinion,... In my view,... According to_, ...

Appendix D: Sometimes a word is too long to fit on a line, so you must divide the word Word write part of it on one line and the rest of it on the next line below (after

Division skipping a line, of course!). Put a hyphen (-) after the first part of the word.

Where should you divide a word? Here are some basic guidelines:

1. Always divide a word between syllables. If you are not sure where the syllables are, look the word up in a dictionary. A dictionary shows syllabic divisions with a small dot:

irvterna-tiotval com-mu-ni-ca-tion sci-ence class-mate re-write house (cannot be divided)

Here are two hints:

a. Divide after a vowel:

ho-nor (not horror) spe-cial (not spec-ial)

ra-pid (not rap-id) deco-rate (not dec orate)

b. Divide between a double consonant (mm, nn, 11, pp, etc.):

col-lege embarrass corn-mute sit-ting

but keep word roots together:

tall-est sell-ing

2. Divide hyphenated words (part-time, mother-in-law, only after the hyphen:

mother-in-law (not mo-ther-in-law)

3. Leave at least two letters on a line. For example, don't divide these words:

e-rase wind-y

Appendix E

Dividing Words

Use a dictionary to do this exercise. Work by yourself or with a partner.

1. Show with hyphens where these words can be divided. Look them up in a dictionary if you are not sure.

2. Some words cannot be divided; put an X in the space next to them.

j. paragraph k. book

1. bookstore m. unfortunate n. reading o. microwave p. appointment q. non-credit r. businessman

Appendix E: Parts of Speech

Students and teachers use special vocabulary to talk about grammar and sentence structure. Each word in a sentence has a name that tells what kind of word it is. These names are the parts of speech.

parts of speech

Noun Names a person, place, or thing; is used as a subject or as an object

Alice, book, friendship, fear, island, Cuba

Alice wrote a book of poems for her friend.

Pronoun Replaces a noun

he, 1, them, it, ours, yours, us, this,

that

She wroteJt for him.

parts of speech (continued)

Verb

Tells action, feeling,

write, is writing, wrote, was

condition

writing, can write, has written, is

going to write

How many paragraphs have we

written?

1 am going to write a letter tonight

or

Links the subject

is, was, has been, seem, appear, feel,

with the rest of

look, taste, smell

the sentence

The old man appeared to be sleeping.

(Note: To be is an infinitive. It is

not like a verb that can change its

form.)

Article

Makes a noun

the (specific), a, an (general)

specific or general

Please take a seat in the front row.

Adjective

Describes a noun

red, hungry, fourth, three, Cuban,

or pronoun

afraid

Three daring students were smoking

Cuban cigars in the school office, but

they weren't afraid of getting caught

Adverb

Describes a verb,

beautifully, easily, quickly, very, too,

adjective, or another

here, there, everywhere

adverb; tells how,

now, then, later, often, sometimes

where, or when

The students put out their cigars very

quickly and left there immediately.

Preposition

Shows a relationship

in, on, at, around, from, by, with, of,

such as time,

because of, next to, according to

location, reason

(2 words)

The headmaster of the school came

into the room and looked under the

table for the students.

parts of speech (continued)

Coordinating conjunction

Connects equal elements

and, but, or, so, for, nor, yet He didn't find them, so he left

Subordinating conjunction

Is the first word in a dependent clause; it makes the clause dependent

when, because, if, although, who, which, that

He didn't find them because they had already left

Practice identifying the parts of speech in any of the sentences in this book.

Business Correspondence

Business Correspondence

24 chapters on preparing to write the letter and finding the proper viewpoint how to open the letter, present the proposition convincingly, make an effective close how to acquire a forceful style and inject originality how to adapt selling appeal to different prospects and get orders by letter proved principles and practical schemes illustrated by extracts from 217 actual letter.

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