When the first recordings of country music were made In the 1920s, the only people who listened to them were people who lived on farms and ranches or in small town© In rural America. That's why they called Jt country music. The farms raised sheep, goats, cows, and a variety of grains, such as corn and wheat. the middle of the twentieth century, things had changed. You might even have heard a country band in New York City. New York vras already becoming a very popular tourist destination. The Statue of Liberty was a favorite place to visit. Today, you'll hear hmcncan country music In Tokyo and Taipei, Bangkok and Brussels, Moscow and Munich. Nowadays, country singers like Garth P rooks and Shan la Twain are known around the worid. With its roots In the folk music of Europe and the traditional songs of Africa, country music has become a global phenomenon.

Adjusting to another culture's food can be a challenge for many travelers. The geography of a country can greatly affect the typicalfoods that are eaten by its people.,

Types of information

Read the three introductions in Unit exercise 3 on page 58 again» What types of information does each introductory paragraph contain?

4 Look at the introduction of the essay you wrote for Unit 9, exercise 6 on page 70. With a partner, rewrite the introduction, making changes to improve it.

The conclusion

3 The importance of a conclusion

The conclusion is the final paragraph of the essay. A good concluding paragraph ...

• summarizes the main points of the essay.

• restates the thesis (using different words).

• makes a final comment about the essay's main idea.

• may emphasize an action that you would like the reader to take.

Don'I introduce new ideas in a conclusion. A conclusion only restates or gives further commentary on ideas discussed in the essay.

5 Look at the essay in Uni! 8, exercise 1 on page 57 again. Answer these questions, a. Does the conclusion use any of the four techniques described above? Which ones?

b. Which sentence in the conclusion restates the thesis (from the introduction)?

Did you know that the average human eye bliriles 20,000 times every day?

How to make an introduction interesting

To make an introductory paragraph interesting for the reader, you can include...

interesting facts or statistics, a personal story or examplu. an interesting quotation.

Did you know that the average human eye bliriles 20,000 times every day?

Match each of these introduction thesis statements with its rewritten version for a conclusion«

a Supermarkets are the best places to buy food because of their convenience and lower prices.

b Traveling abroad is a valuable learning experience.

1. People can. learn many things bv traveling to other countries.

2. Despite the challenges, being an. entrepreneur can offer more benefits than other types of employment.

6. The sun gives a constant, free supply of clean energy, which more homes should

C- Learning to pla}' a musical instrument is very beneficial for children.

d. Creating and owning a business offers more advantages than working as an employee in a company.

e More houses should be adapted to use solar energy because it is clean and renewable.

f. The World Wide Web can be very useful for research, but it also contains a lot of Incorrect information.

3. The fact that larger grocery stores offer cheap priccs and a large selection of products makes them the best place for shoppers.

4. The World Wide Web gives access to a huge amount of knowledge, but users shouldn't believe everything they read there.

5. When children arc exposed to music and are taught to play instruments such as the piano or violin, there arc many positive effects.

6. The sun gives a constant, free supply of clean energy, which more homes should

7 Read paragraph a in Unit 8, exercise 3 on page 58 again. Choose the best concluding paragraph, below.

Americans eat many different kinds of food, but the typical diet of many people includes eating a lot of fast food. The popularity of hamburger and pizza restaurants has Increased greatly over the years. As a result of this diet, many Americans have food-related health problems. To create a healthier society, people should learn about eating a good diet and should teach their children to do the same.

Clearly, it is difficult to say that there is one type of American food. Every region of the country has its own favorite dishes and cooking styles based on the ethnic influences in that region. From Native Americans and the first European settlers to present-day immigrants, the cuisine of the U.S.A, continues to change with its changing population.

People who have come- from other countries to live m the United States have brought traditions and customs with them and added to American culture, ft is possible to find restaurants from all different ethnic backgrounds, especially in larger cities around the country, immigrants may also maintain their traditions by building places to practice their religion, such as mosques, temples, and churches. Eg continuing to follow some of their customs and beliefs, immigrants can remain in touch with their past while also living a new lift in a new country.

8 Look at the conclusion of the essay you wrote for Unit 9, exercise 6 on page 70. With a partner, rewrite the conclusion, making changes to improve it.


9 Complete the crossword puzzle.



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