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Living alone will help me team how to handle this responsibility.

6 For one of the five-minute outlines you wrote for exercise 5 on page 92, write a topic sentence for each main point.

Checking your work

3 Check your work

After you finish your essay, or at least five minutes before your time is up, take some time to check your work. Read the essay from beginning to ond. Although you cannot read your essay out loud (unless you arc aloue), try to "hear" what it would sound like in your head.

• Did you answer all parts of the question?

• Is your essay unified? Cross out any unrelated ideas.

• Are words spelled correctly and written neatly?

• Do your sentences sound clear? If you arc not sure if your grammar is correct, try to say your ideas another way.

• Did you erase or cross out any mistakes or stray marks?

7 You have already spent five minutes writing an outline for the topics in exercise 5 on page 92. Now choose one of those topics and spend another twenty minutes writing the essay. Then take five minutes to check your work. Then share your essay with a partner or small group.

Review

8 Work in groups nf four. Divide into pairs. Pair A, look at the essay on English vocabulary in Unit 8, cxercise 1 on page 57. Pair B, look at the essay on Chinese medicine in Unit 11, exercise 1 on page 79. Do the following:

a. In. pairs, write two or three essay questions about the information presented. Give your essay questions to the other pair.

b. Individually, choose one of the questions the other pair wrote for you and write an answer based on the information given in the essay. You may use your textbook. Write a thirty-minute essay in this way: First, write a five-minute outline. Then., write your essay for twenty minutes. Finally, spend five minutes checking your work.

c. Rejoin your group of four. Take turns reading your essays aloud. After one person reads the essay, the other group members should identify the thesis statement and main ideas. Tell the writer something you liked about the essay.

Additional Materials

Sample essay: brainstorming 96

Sample essay: first draft 97

Sample essay: second draft 99

Punctuation 101

Sample information letter 103

Sample statement of purpose 104

Sample resume I 105

Sample resume 2 106

Addressing an envelope 107

Sample essay: brainstorming

AssIgrimfillJU. Write an argument essay of 2-3 pages. First, choose a topic and brainstorm some ideas. Then, organize your ideas into an outline. After you have checked your outline carefully, write the first draft of your essay. Exchange drafts with a classmate, and give and receive peer feedback. Using those comments to guide you, prepare a final draft

Remember: all final papers must be typed and double-spaced.' Please turn in your brainstorming, outline, and first draft together with your final draft.

need special safety features nuclear waste radioactive train workers fuels are dangerous expensive not $ood energy source plants break down

accidents at power plants natural disasters workers' mistakes others? weather?

Cherno^ Tokalmura others?

Z) The outline for this sample essay appears 011 page «5. 96 ADDITIONAL MATERIALS

Sample essay: first draft

Z> The comments on the essay were written by one of the writer's classmates.

Don't Support Nuclear Energy!

Canyon add some kind of introduction beforejiving your thesis statement?

Even though it can provide the world with a source of electricity, nuciear power is noi a good energy source because it is too expensive, the materials used in the

Good thesis statement—very dear power plants arc not safe, and there is a great possibility of accidents.

Canyon add a topic sentence to this paragraph? First of all, nuclear fuel is expensive. It must be taken out of the ground and transported great distances. As fuels are used up, they will become even more expensivej just as oil and gas have become more expensive. In addition, nuclear

Can you explain this idea a (title more? power plants are expensive to build and to operate. It is expensive to train workers. Needs transition You have used "expensive" S times in the paragraph

Nuclear materials arc not safe. When uranium is taken out of the ground, radioactive gas is released. This is nor safe for the miners. Uranium itself is also not

Why is uranism not safe? safe. Being around uranium is not safe for workers. Needs transition

Nuclear waste is also dangerous. It is very radioactive, and it is difficult to dispose of it or even 10 store it safely. This is a very short paragraph... NUe transition

Most significantly, there is always a possibility of nuclear accidents. The power plants themselves can fail when they get old or if they are not built correctly. The

Nice specific example machinery can malfunction, too. In 1979, problems at the Three iMile Island nuclear power plant in the United States resulted in radioactive materials escaping into the nearby community. More recently, equipment failures were responsible for accidenis

Canyon explain what happened at these places? in power plants in Tarapur, India (1992) and Darlington, Canada (1992).

Canyon add a transition? Workers at nuclear power plants can make mistakes. Perhaps the most famous of these incidents occurred at Chernobyl (in the former U.S.S.R.) in 1986.

Radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident was recorded as far away as Eastern

Qood detail

Europe, Scandinavia, and even Japan, Human error was responsible for power plant

Qood detail

Europe, Scandinavia, and even Japan, Human error was responsible for power plant aeddenrs in Kola, Russia (1991) and Tokairauraj Japan <1999). There is no way we aeddenrs in Kola, Russia (1991) and Tokairauraj Japan <1999). There is no way we can guarantee that workers will not make mistakes again in the future.

Even natural disasters can affect nuclear power plants. An earthquake in

Bulgaria in 1977 damaged the nuclear power plant in Kozloduy, and a big storm in

Can you give some comment aboui this ? the Pacific Ocean in 1981 washed nuclear waste out into the ocean.

It js true that oil and gas cannot supply all of the world's energy needs much

Good restatement of thesis longer. However, we cannot replace them with an energy source that is too expensive and is dangerous from the time the fuels are taken out of the ground, and even after the plant is running.

I think you. need some kind of concluding sentence Wlud do you recommend instead of nuclear power?

Qoodessay 1 You have a lot of information andspecific examples. Your arguments are very clear. Your organization isgood, too.

Sample essay: second draft

Carol Chan Academic Writing Argument Essays Second Draft October 15, 2002

Don't Support Nuclear Energy!

ITicsc days, it seems like everyone is worried about how the world will meet its energy demands when we have run out of oil and natural gas. Scientists and researchers are investigating such power sources as solar energy, wind energy, and even energy from hot rocks beneath the earth's surface. However, there is one energy source that I believe should not be developed any further. In fact, I believe that we should stop using it as soon as possible. Even though it can provide the world with a source of electricity, nuclear power is not a good energy source because it is too expensive, the materials used in the power plants are not safe, and there is a great possibility of accidents.

Nuclear power is not an economical energy source. First of all, nuclear fuel is expensive. It must be taken out of the ground and transported great distances. As fuels are used up, they will become even more expensive, just as oil and gas have, In addition, nuclear power plants cost a lot of money to build and to operate because of the great care that must be taken with safety. Becausc the people who work in nuclear power plants must be highly trained specialists, salaries for workers are also high.

In addition to being expensive, nuclear materials are not safe. When uranium, is taken out of the ground, radioactive gas is released. This is not safe for the miners, Uranium itself also is not safe because of its high radioactivity. Because of this, people who work with nuclear fuels are at risk of cancer. As nuclear power plants run, they create nuclear waste, which also is dangerous. It is very radioactive, and it is difficult to dispose of or even to store safely. No town wants nuclear waste buried nearby, and for good reason.

Most significantly, there is always a possibility of nuclear accidents. The power plants themselves can fail when they get old or if they are not built correctly, The machinery can malfunction, too. In 1979, problems at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in the United States resulted in radioactive materials escaping into the nearby community. More recently, equipment failures were responsible for accidents in power plants inTarapur, India in 1992, and Darlington, Canada, also in 1992. Both of these accidents led to leaks of radioactive material.

It is not just buildings and equipment which can fail, but people, too. Workers at nuclear power plants can make mistakes. Perhaps the most famous of these incidents occurred at Chernobyl, in the former U.S.S.R., in 1986. Radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident was recorded as far away as Eastern Europe, Scandinavia, and even Japan. Human error has been responsible for numerous power plant accidents, Some recent well-known examples include Kola, Russia, where workers accidentally caused an equipment failure in 1991, and Tokaimura, Japan, in 1999. There is no way we can guarantee that workers will not make mistakes again in the future.

Even natural disasters can affect nuclear power plants. An earthquake in Bulgaria in 1977 damaged the nuclear power plant in KozJoduy, and a big storm in the Pacific Ocean in 1981 washed nuclear waste from Moruroa out into ihe ocean. Of course, it is impossible for people to predict or to prevent events like diis. Different types of severe weather or natural disasters can strike almost anywhere in the world.

It is true that oil and gas cannot supply all of the world's energy needs much longer. However, we cannot replace them with an energy source that is expensive and dangerous, from the time the fuels are taken out of the ground to even after the plant is running. Instead, we must develop cheaper and, most importantly, safer types of energy to power our world.

Punctuation

Here are some common rules for using punctuation in your writing. Of course, this is not a complete list. If you have further questions, check a grammar book or ask your teacher.

Z/ Capitalization

Always capitalize:

• days of the week (7besc/ay) and months of the year (April).

• the first letter [only) of the namas of people and places [Bangkok, Ayaka Seo),

• the main words of a title, but not articles (a, an, the) or prepositions [words like to, of, for) or conjunctions [and, but), unless they are the first word in the title:

The Three Things I Do in the Morning

A period comes at the end of a statement:

An electronic dictionary is more convenient than a paper one.

If the sentence ends with an abbreviation, don't use more than one period: RIGHT: My mother just finished her Ph.D. WRONG: My mother just finished her Ph.D..

Use a comma to separate a series of three or more items:

I take a dictionary, a notebook, and some paper to class every day.

Use a comma before words like and, but, or; so, and yet to separate two parts of a sentence that each have a subject and a verb.

She needed some work experience, so she got a part-time job. He did not study at all, but he still got an 87 on the test.

Use a comma after an introductory word or expression, such as However, Therefore, and In conclusion:

However, the high price of electric cars means that most people cannot afford one.

Use quotation marks when you t3^pe or write the title of a book or movie: "Hamlet" was written by Shakespeare.

When you use a word processor, you can use italics instead: Hamlet was written by Shakespeare.

Use quotation marks to show the exact words someone spoke or wrote: The professor announced, "We're going to have an exam next week." Shakespeare wrote, "All the world's a stage."

Do not use quotation marks if you're reporting what another person said: The professor said that we should study hard this week.

Note: That, as used in the sentence above, usually indicates that the remark is not a direct quotation.

3 Punctuation when using quotation marks

If you aro using expressions like he said or the girl remarked after the quotation, then use a comma and not a period at the end of the quoted sentence:

"We're going to have an exam next week/' announced the professor,

Use a period if the quoted sentence comes at the end:

The professor announced, "We're going to have an exam next week."

Notice how a comma is used after announced, above, to introduce the quotation.

Periods and commas are placed inside quotation marks. Exclamation points and question marks may come inside or outside, depending on whether Lhey are part of the quotation or part of the surrounding sentence:

"Do you know who wrote Hamlet?" asked the teacher. Do you know who said "All the world's a stage"?

Z) Quotation marks and capitalization

Capitalize the first letter of the word that begins a quotation. However, if an expression like she said interrupts the quotation and divides the sentence, then do not capitalize the first word of the part that finishes the quotation:

"Next week," said the professor, "we are going to have an exam."

The comma after week separates the quotation from the test of the sentence.

Use a capital letter only if the second part is a new, complete sentence:

"We'll have an exam next week/' explained the teacher. "It will take thirty minutes."

O Advice for academic writing

The following are not usually used in academic writing, although they are fine in informal situations, such as letters to your friends.

• Parentheses that give information which is not part of your main sentence:

Cellular phones are useful (and besides, I think they look great). If your idea is important, it should be in a sentence of its own. If it is not important, it should not be in your paper.

• The abbreviation etc. to continue a list. Instead, use a phrase like such as in your sentence:

Students in my university come from countries such as China, India, and Australia.

• Exclamation points (1 ). Instead, write strong sentences with plenty of details to show your reader your feelings:

Angel Falls is one of the most spectacular natural wonders you will ever see.

• An ellipsis (...) at the end of a sentence, to show that the sentence is not finished:

The professor said that I should study hard, so ... Instead, finish your sentence: The professor said that I should study, so I should not go to the party tonight.

Sample information letter

10-6-14-105 Sakura-cho **-Setagaya-ku Tokyo, Japan 332-3322 E-mail: [email protected]

Admissions Office -

Central Michigan University Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859 U.S.A.

Senders address bate the letter was written Receiver's address

Qreeting

I am writing to express an interest in the Intensive English Program at your university, which I learned of while searching on the Internet. -introduction

I would appreciate any information you could provide about your program. I am interested in studying English for one semester, so I would like to know more about the courses your offer, the number of hours of study per week, and the tuition cost.

In addition, it would be helpful if you could provide information about housing. I am interested in learning as much as I can about the culture, so if it is possible, I would like to live with a family.

Thank you in advance for your time and help. I look forward to receiving more information about your program. -Conclusion

Sincerely,

Shinichi Usuda

Closing Signature

Shinichi Usuda

Sender's no.me

Sample statement of purpose

Z) What is a statement of purpose?

When you apply to a college or university in the United States for an undergraduate or graduate degree, you are often askod to write a one-page statement of purpose. This is a short essay that tells the university why you are applying, and also why you would be a good addition to their program. The essay below is from a Taiwanese student wishing to alitor a Master's Degree (M.A,) program in Teaching English as a Second Language at Western Arizona University in the United States.

I have been interested in English since I was twelve, when my family took a trip to Australia. I thought then how useful and exciting it would be to talk to the people I met It was not only the Australians who spoke English, but also other tourists we met who had traveled there from all over the world. Whether they were from Germany, Indonesia, or Brazil, their common language was English, and I wanted to share that language with them.

I worked hard at my English studies in junior high school and high school. I was a member of our school's English Conversation Club, and in my last year I was secretary of the club. I also took part in the national English Speech Contest for three years.

In college, I majored in English literature. I also took English conversation lessons at a private school two evenings a week. In addition, I made friends with some of the international students at my college, and we always spoke together in English. During my last two years at college, I took a part-time job tutoring elementary and junior high school students in English grammar and conversation.

Because of my long interest in English and my experience teaching English, I am sure that I would like to become an ESL teacher. I have chosen to study in the United States so that 1 can also leam about the culture of an English-speaking country. I have heard about Western Arizona University from other graduates, and I am impressed with the classes offered there and the quality of instruction. I think 1 would be a valuable addition to your ESL program because I could share my own experiences with learning English. I look forward to the opportunity to further my own knowledge of English and of American culture, and to meeting the challenges of both learning and teaching with the other students in your program.

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Responses

  • Togo
    What happened in power plants in 1992 in these places india,canada,tarapur and darlington?
    3 years ago

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