• keep you from forgetting any important points.


What is an outline?

An outline is a list of the information you will put in your essay. You can sec an example of an outline on page 65.

• begins with the essay's thesis statement.

• shows the organization of the essay.

• tells what ideas you will discuss and shows which ideas will comc first, sccond, and so on.

• ends with the essay's conclusion.

Writing an outline before you write an essay will ...

• show you what to write before you actually begin writing.

• help make your essay well organized and clearly focused.

• keep you from forgetting any important points.

Imagine your skeleton: although you don't see it, it supports your body. In the same way, although a reader won't see your outline» making an outline in advance will support your essay by providing its structure. In fact, adding more information to an outline is called "fleshing it out.'1



Looking at on outline i Read the outline on page 65. Answer the questions.

a. What will he the thesis statement of the essay?

b. IIow many body paragraphs will the essay have?

c. How many supporting points will the third paragraph have? What will they be?

d. IIow many details will the fourth paragraph have? What will they be?

Writing an outline

Z) How to write an outline

Before? writing an outline, you must go through the usual process of gathering ideas, editing them, and deciding on a topic for your writing. Writing an outline can be a very useful way of organizing your ideas and seeing how they will work together.

To show how the ideas work together, number them. To 3void confusion, use several different types of numbers and letters to show the organization of the ideas. Use roman numerals (I, II, III, IV, V, VI, etc.) for your essay's main ideas; your introduction and thesis statement, your body paragraphs, and your conclusion. Write all of these first, before going into more detail anywhere.

I. Introduction

II. First main Idea

III. Second main idea

IV. Third main idea

V. Conclusion

Next, fill in more information for your body paragraphs by using capital roman letters (A, B. C, etc.). Use one letter for each supporting idea in your body paragraph. Complete this information for each body paragraph before going into more detail.

I, Introduction

II. First main idea

A. First supporting point

B. Second supporting point ... and so on.

Finally, use Arabic numerals (1. 2, 3, etc.) to give details for your supporting points. Not every supporting point will have details, and some points will have several. It is not important to have the same number of details for every supporting point.

I. Introduction

II. First main idea

A. First supporting point

1. First detail

2. Second detail

B. Second supporting point

1. First detail

Don't Support Nuclear Energy?

I. Nuclear power is not a good energy source for the

II. Very expensive

A. Nuclear fuel is expensive

B. Nuclear power plants are expensive to build and operate

1. Cost of construction

2. Cost of training workers

3. Cost of safety features m. Nuclear materials are not safe

A, Nuclear fuels are dangerous

1. Mining fuels produces radioactive gas

2. Working with radioactive fuels can harm workers

B. Nuclear waste products are dangerous

1. Very radioactive

2. Difficult to dispose of or store safely

TV. There is a great possibility of accidents

A. Nuclear power plants can fail X. Three Mile Island, U.S.A. (1979)

2. Tarapur, India (1992)

3. Darlington, Canada (1992)

B. Workers can make mistakes

3. Tokaimura, Japan (1999)

C. Natural disasters can occur

1, Earthquake: Kozloduy, Bulgaria (1977)

2, Tornado: Moruroa, the Pacific (1981)

V. Because of the cost and the danger, the world should develop different types of energy to replace nuclear power.

2 Fill in this outline for the essay in Unit 8, exercise 1 on page 57» Then compare with a partner.

The Changing Vocabulary of English

II. Words introduced by



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