Then Brainstorm Ideas And Narrow Your Topic. Use Modal Auxiliaries And Causal Adverbs.

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CH agree D disagree

ED agree □ disagree

C agree ED disagree

10 Share your statements with three classmates. Say how you feel about your partners' statements by saying, "I agree" or "I disagree," and then adding one sentence. Check (/) your partners' opinions about your statements.

Smoking must be banned in alt restaurants and bars.

Smoking must be banned in alt restaurants and bars.

I agree. Smoking is dangerous even for people who are near smokers.

i disagree. There are already non-smoking areas in restaurants, and that's enough.

I agree. Smoking is dangerous even for people who are near smokers.

or i disagree. There are already non-smoking areas in restaurants, and that's enough.

I I Read the opinion paragraphs in exercise 1 on page 33 and exercise 8 on page 35 again. Then write a paragraph about one of the opinions you expressed in exercise 10 above. Brainstorm ideas, narrow your topic, and then write. Remember to use modal auxiliaries.

Causal adverbs

O How to use causal adverbs for expressing opinions

Because, since. and so are causal adverbs. They join two ideas when one idea causes or explains the other. Because and since introduce the c;ause or reason, and so and therefore introduce the effect or result:

cause / reason effect / result gasoline is becoming scaice and expensive we should develop electric cars

For example:

Because gasoline is becoming scarce and expensive, we should develop electric cars. We should develop electric cars since gasoline is becoming scarce and expensive. Gasoline is becoming scarce and expensive, so we should develop clectric cars.

Therefore is slightly different. It joins tho ideas in two sentences:

Gasoline is becoming scarce and expensive, Therefore, we should develop electric cars.

12 In the examples above, underline the causes. Circle the results. Do the causal adverbs come before the cause or before the result? Share your answers with a partner.

Punctuation note

• When because or since begin a sentence, use a comma after the first part of the sentence (the cause).

• When tho effect or result comes firsi, don't use a comma before because and since.

• A result or effect beginning with so is usually the second part of a sentence. Use a comma before so.

» Use Therefore after a period.

• Use a comma after Therefore.

I 3 Complete this opinion paragraph using because or since, so, or Therefore. Add punctuation where necessary«

Bruce Lee {i 940-1973), the greatest action movie star of all time» should be given a lifetime achievement award for his work in the movies. Bruce died tragically in 1973 he wouldn't he able to receive the award himself, but his fans all over the world would tove to see him honored. Why was Bruce Lee so great? The fight scenes in hi* films were amazing

|v> Jirucc was always in top physical condition. His body was almost perfect.

He wax also a great actor, he started acting when he was just six years old, he was very com form Me and natural in front of the camera. His face was very expressive

he was able to communicate a lot «f feeling with a simple look. Bruce always looked good on film ^ he was so charming. Bruce Lee was a talented acmr, a brilliant fighter, and an almosr perfect example of physical fitness. *

he should receive an award that recognizes his great contribution to the an of film making.

J 4 Use the causal adverbs in parentheses to join these ideas. You may change the order of ideas. You may make one sentence or two. Use appropriate punctuation.

a. the city doesn't have enough money / we ought to increase city taxes [so)

b. I'm going to quit my part-time job /1 don't have enough time for my homework (because)

c. some plants and trees are dying / this summer has been very dry (since)

d. many students are graduating with nursing degrees / it might be hard for nurses to find jobs in the future (Therefore)

e. my friends all recommcnd that restaurant ! I will try it this weekend (so)

Ï5 Look again at the opinions that were expressed in exercise 9 on page 36. Compléta these sentences in your notebook with your own ideas about these opinions. Use appropriate punctuation.

since so c

f. Therefore

Writing an opinion paragraph

16 Write an opinion paragraph. First, answer this question: What do I want my reader to think or do? Then brainstorm ideas and narrow your topic. Use modal auxiliaries and causal adverbs.


Put these sentences in order to make a paragraph. Write 1 in front of the first sentence, 2 in front of the second sentence, and so on.

a He was receiving a call b My friend and I leaned forward, listening carefully to the movie.

c It was very distracting.

d Last night, I went to see a movie with my friend. It was a suspense movie, e He decided to answer the call.

f We think that people should turn off their cell phones when they watch a movie, or not bring them at all!

g It was very exciting.

h The man next to us had a ceJJ phone.

i Suddenly, we heard a loud sound—a silly musical melody.

j He spoke out loud to his friend.

k Cell phones should not be allowed in theaters.

1 My friend and I felt annoyed.

m At the most exciting moment, the actors didn't speak. Only quiet music was playing.

IS With a partner, write a paragraph using the sentences in exercise 17 above. Remember to join some of the sentences with causal adverbs and with transitions from the top of page 30. Read your paragraph to another pair. How were your paragraphs the same? How were they different?

Comparison I Contrast Paragraphs

In this unit, you will learn about...

■ comparison / contrast paragraphs and reasons for writing them,

■ how to organize comparison / contrast paragraphs.

■ connecting words used for comparing and contrasting topics.

■ how to write about the advantages and disadvantages »fa topic.

Z) Paragraphs that compare and contrast

To compare means to discuss how two people, places, or things are similar. Both teachers and students need to spend a lot of time preparing for classes. To contrast means to discuss how two people, places, or things are different: One main advantage of a bicycle over a car is that a bicycle doesn't create any air pollution.

Compare And Contrast Air Pollution City

Choosing a topic

I Brainstorm ideas to compare and contrast. Think of people, places, and things. Then compare your lists with a partner.

People: and

Things: and

Comparing and contrasting

Read Toko's e-mail message to her friend and answer the questions.

a. What two things does the second paragraph talk about?

b. Is the second paragraph mostly comparing or mostly contrasting? How do you know?

From: [email protected] To: [email protected] Subject: City College!

Hi, Kyung Hwa!

How are you doing? I hope everything is fine with you. It's almost time to graduate—can you believe it? I was just talking to Anna yesterday and she told me that you are planning to go to City College. That's greatf Since I'm planning to go to State University, we'll be living in the same city I Have you decided where you're going to live?

My parents want me to live in a dormitory, but I want to get a campus apartment. I think they are both good places to live, but an apartment would be better. In a dorm, you usually live with at least one other person in a small room. On the other hand, most of the campus apartments are pretty large, but they are for single people like me who want to live afone. Another difference is that in a dorm, you get food cooked by somebody else. In an apartment, of course, you have to cook for yourself I That would be good for me because J like to cook. My parents point out that when you pay the bill for a dorm, rt includes food and utilities, but for an apartment, there might be different bids for the telephone, the electricity, and the gas. Plus, you have your own grocery bill when you go to the store. However, when you have your own apartment, you get to choose what you eat and when you eat rt. I hope I can convince my parents that an apartment will be better than a dorm.

Talk to you soon! Love,


Comparative and contrastive structures

Z) Using comparative structures

These words and phrases are used for writing comparisons;

and The man and the woman are tall.

both Both of the tables have broken legs.

both ... and Both my neighbor and. / are selling our cars.

also The stores are closing for the holiday. The bank is also closing.

too neither... nor similar to the same as

Kathy is planning to go to the party; and I am, too. Neither Joe nor Steve went to the meeting last night. Their new computer is similar to the one my brother bought. Is the rostauront whore you had dinner the same as the place where I ate last month?

(just) as + adjective + as His coat is just as warm as the more expensive one. likewise similarly

My parents were born in a small village, Likewise, my brothers and I also grew up in a smoll toivn.

There are many parks to visit in that city. Similarly, there are several parks in my hometown, too.

Complete these sentences with phrases from above.

a. The architecture of some modern government buildings is the type of construction used hundreds of years ago.

b. In recent years, new technology such as cellular telephones has made life more convenient the Internet has made a wide variety of information available to everyone.

c tho rivers the lakes are clear and beautiful.

d. The capital city is just modern the cities in many other countries.

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  • fiona
    How to use causal adverbs for expressing opinion?
    4 years ago
  • yusef awate
    How to write brainstorm with model auxiliary and connects of cause and effect?
    2 years ago
  • Kimberley Macleod
    How to write brainstorm with modal auxiliary and connectors of cause and effect?
    2 years ago

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