2 In the paragraph above, underline the topic sentence. Below, list the details used to support the topic sentence. Compare your answers with a partner, a
3 An explanation tells what something means or how something works. In this paragraph, underline the topic sentence. Then answer the questions.
"A stitch in time saves nine. "My mother, who likes to sew, used this simple saying to teach me the value of working on problems when they are still small. Originally, the saying referred to sewing—if you have a small hole in a shirt, you can repair it with one stitch. But if you wait, the hole willyet larger, and it will take you nine stitches. This simple sentence reminds me to take care of smallproblems before they become big problems.
a. What is the writer trying to explain?
b. Is she successful? Do you understand the explanation? yes / no
4 An example is a specific person, place, thing, or event that supports an idea or statement. This paragraph includes an example from the writer's own experience. Underline the topic sentence.
Even when a first date is a disaster, a couple can still become good friends. For example, my first date with Greg was terrible. I thought he was coming to pick me up at 6:30, but instead he came at 6:00. ] didn't have time to fix my hair, and my make-up (coked sloppy. When I got Into his car,1 scraped my leg against the car door and tore my stocking. Next, he took me to an Italian restaurant for d'\r\r\er, and 1 accidentally dropped some spaghetti on my shirt. Then we went to a movie. Greg asked me which movie ( wanted to see, and 1 chose a romantic cornedy He fell asleep during the movie, and I got angry. Now that Greg and I are good friends, we can look back and laugh at how terrible that first date was!
5 Why do you think the writer chose to use an example to develop the paragraph in exercise 4 above? Write your reason here, and then compare with a partner.
6 Would you develop each of these topics with details, ail explanation, or an example? Explain your choices to a partner, (More than one answer is possible.)
a. what freedom means to me b. an unusual vacation c. weddings in my country d. why 1 don't like to swim e. tho ideal job
7 Develop your own paragraph. Look back at the topic sentences you wrote in Unit 2, exercise 6 on page 15. Follow these steps.
Step one: Choose one that you would like to develop into a paragraph. Step two: Brainstorm some ideas using any method you like. Step three: Develop your paragraph with supporting sentences.
Step four: Exchange paragraphs with a partner. Say what kind of support your partner used. Could your partner tell what kind of support you used?
Z) How to end a paragraph
The final sentence of a paragraph is called the concluding sentence. It sums up the main points or restates the main idea in a différent way. A sentence that sums up the paragraph reminds the reader of what the writer's main idea and supporting points were. A sentence that restates the main idea should give the same information in a slightly different way, perhaps by using different words or by using different word order. A concluding sentence should not introduce a new point.
8 Read the example paragraphs in exercises 3 and 4 on page 18 again. Underline the concluding sentences. Do the concluding sentences sum up the information in the paragraph ar restate the main idea?
9 Work with a partner. Take turns reading these paragraphs aloud» Is the main idea developed by details, an explanation, or an example? Is there a concluding sentence? Circle y as or no. If there is no concluding sentence, write one with your partner.
jEven simple study habits can improve yourgrades. codcye, / teamed how important it is toget enough sleep. When you are well-rested, it is easier to ¡earn. Research shows that when people doh't yet enough sleep, their memories aren't as effective, ff students are really tired, they might even fall asleep in classi it's easy to see how yetting enough sleep can improveyour performance in school.
a. means of support:
concluding sentenco? yes / no
My favorite class is psychology, (enjoy ¡earning about the u/ays people think and behave / also aw interested in learning about the way children's minds develop.
b. moans of support:
concluding sentence? yes / no
/ am too nervous to sing karaoke songs with my friends. The last time I tried was on mv birthday, whan my friends took me to a karaoke club. I told my friends I didn't want to sing, but they encouraged me until I said yes. When I stood up in front of the microphone, I was so scared, I felt dizzy. It was hard to hear the music, and my mouth was too dry to make a sound. I just stood there until a friend jumped up next to me and finished the song, c. means of support:
concluding sentence? ves / no
/ W/ never eat dinner at The Ufiie French Bistro a$ain. The restaur*** is *\ot very clean. You can see dost in the comers and on the shelves. The food is expensive, but the portions are stnaff. I never feci full after I've finished eating. In addition, the waiters arc not very friendly. Far (hese reasons, I u/tll not visit that restaurant again.
concluding sentence? yes / no
For me, 0 friend is someone who accepts you the way you are. A friend doesn't want you to change your personality or your style. I like people who don't care if the people they are with are wearing popular clothes cr listening to trendy mueic.
concluding sentence? yes / no
Z) What is peer editing?
Showing your work to another student is a very useful way to improve your writing. This is called peer editing. You read your partner's writing and your partner reads yours. You comment on your partner's writing and your partner comments on yours. You might talk together, write comments on a sheet that your instructor gives you, or write directly on your partner's paper.
Here is the first draft of the paragraph about the writer's first date with Greg. The writer has shown the paragraph to another student, who wrote some comments.
TopU sentence Even when a first date is a disaster, a couple can stilf bevdoped by example become good friends. For example, my first date with
Can you make this stronger?
Greg wasn't very good. I thought he was coming to pick
When did he come? me up at 6:30, but he didn't. When I got into his car.
Explain how you tore it. Till more about this.
I tore my stocking. Next, i accidentally got some spaghetti
What kind of movie? How did you feel about that?
on my shirt.Then we went to a movie. He feJI asfeep Concluding sentence during the movie. Now that Greg and I are good friends,
Cioodf The same as the topic sentence we can look back and laugh because even when a first date is a disaster, a couple can stifl become good friends.
10 Look at the handwritten comments on the paragraph above, and answer these questions with a partner, a. How many of the comments are statements? How many are questions?
b. Why do you think the peer editor sometimes wrote questions instead of statements? For example, why did she write "Can you make this stronger?" instead of "Please make this stronger"?
c. Why do you think the peer editor marked the topic sentence and the concluding sentence?
d. Do you agree with the peer editor's comments?
e. What do you think the writer will do next?
f. Go back to exercise 4 on page 18 and read the paragraph about the date again. Did the writer use the reader's suggestions?
Why do writers use peer editing?
There are two reasons for peer editing. The first is to get a reader's opinion about your writing. A reader can tnll you that...
• you should add more details or explanation.
• something is not organized clearly.
• you havo some information that is not relevant.
• there is something that is hard to understand.
The second reason to share writing with others is for you to read more examples of writing. Other people? will have had experiences Lhat you haven't. They may show you fresh ways of writing about experiences. Heading their paragraphs and essays can give you good ideas to uso yourself in the future.
How do I peer edit?
• Road your partner's paper several times. The first time, just read from the beginning through to the end. Ask yourself, "What is it about? What is the writer's purpose?"
• On your second reading, go more slowly and look at specific parts of the writing and make notes.
■ Look for topic sentences and concluding sentences.
■ No l e pkicus where you have trouble understanding something, where there seems to be unnecessary information» or where there is not enough information.
■ Lot the writer know which pails of the paper are especially strong or interesting.
■ Ask questions. This is a good way to let the writer know where he or she could add more information.
■ Circle or underline words, phrases, and sentences lhat you wish to comment on.
• Don'l look for grammar or spelling mistakes. Pay attention just to the content and organization of the paper.
Giving constructive suggestions
I I For each pair of sentences, check (✓) the one that you feel would be most helpftd to the writer- Share your answers with a partner, and explain your choices.
EH Can you make this topic sentence stronger?
b. EH Did you remember a concluding sentence?
□ Why didn't you write a concluding sentence?
c. ED You didn't write enough.
□ Please explain more about your vacation. Where did you stay? What did you do during the day?
e. □ I think this sentence should come before the next one. EH Your organization is pcetty bad. You'd better change it.
f. □ Why do you keep saying the same thing over and over again?
□ I think these two sentences are really sa3nng the same thing.
9. □ I can't understand why you're talking about your sister.
□ Your paragraph is about your brother, but this sentence is about your sister. Are you sure it's relevant?
h. □ This is a good paragraph. Nice job! I wish I could write as well as you.
□ I like your topic scntonce bocause it has a strong main idea. Your example is funny. 1 wish 1 could meet your brother!
12 Read this paragraph aloud with a partner. Then peer edit it together. Then join another pair and share your comments.
My father is a teacher (admire him a lot / am considering becoming a teacher, too. My older brother works for a big company. My father really loves learning, so he is a natural teacher. My father always helped me u/ith my homework. /guess / will become a teacher.
3 Write a second draft of the paragraph in exercise 12 on page 23. Use the comments you and your partner made. Then exchange paragraphs with your partner. Discuss how your versions are different from the original. Do you think the second drafts are better? Why or why not?
14 Read these statements. Write T (true) or F (false). If the statement is false, change It to make it true. Then compare your answers with a partner»
a. Details give more specific information than the topic sentence.
b. An explanation tells what something is or how it works.
c A detail is usually a short, personal story.
d The concluding sentence uses the same words as the topic sentence.
e The concluding sentence should finish the.paragraph with a new idea.
f. A peer editor should mark any spelling and grammatical mistakes carefully«
g A peer editor should give some positive comments.
h Peer editing helps the writer, not the reader.
i If a peer editor can't understand something that you wrote, then you know lue or she isn't a very good reader.
j A poor editor should be able to identify your topic sentence, main idea, and concluding sentence easily.
Descriptive and Process Paragraphs
In this unit, you will learn, about...
■ descriptive paragraphs and reasons for writing them.
■ organizing and writing descriptive paragraphs using adjcctives and prepositions.
■ process paragraphs and reasons for -wonting them.
■ using transition words to write a process paragraph.
Z) Describing people, places, and processes
A descriptive paragraph explains how someone or something looks or feels. A process paragraph explains how something is done.
Z) Using adjectives
Adjectives are words that tell us how Ihings look, feel, taste, sound, or smell. Adjectives also describe how you feel about something. Here are a few common adjcctivcs.
shape and size large / small wide / narrow round rectangular atmosphere cozy comfortable warm / cool cold / hot how you feel amazed surprised happy nostalgic appearance colorful unforgettable beautiful unattractive
List some words to describe these places.
A description of a place may answer some of these questions:
# Where is the place?
# How warm or cold is the place?
# What things can you see in this place?
List some words to describe these places.
2 Read this description from a travel brochure. Circle the adjectives.
Niagara Falls, a popular destination for thousands of visitors each year, is a beautiful place. When you stand at the edge and look down at the 188 feet of white waterfalls, you feel amazed at the power of nature. The tree-lined river that leads into the fads is fast-moving, pouring over the edge of the falls and crashing to the bottom in a loud roar. If you want to experience the falls close up, go for a boat ride. You'll come near enough to look up at the roaring streams of water flowing over the edge and feel the cool mist that rises as the water hits the rocks below. Seeing Niagara Fails is an unforgettable experience!
Describing the place around you
Prepositions tell us how a space is organized. These are some common and useful prepositions and phrasal prepositions:
in front of / in back of, behind to the right of / to the left of on top of / on the bottom of in the middle of next to around above / below, underneath between
Read this paragraph that describes someone's favorite place, Underline the prepositions.
My favorite place to relax is a small cafe down the street from where i live. This cafe is on a small side street and as soon as you see it, you feel like going in. There are three windows on either side of the door, and enclt window has a small window box with brightly colored flowers. There is a small wooden door that opens into the cafe, and as you go in, you can see a dozen small tables all around the room, Even though it isn't a big place, its size makes it very cozy and comfortable, i always like to sit at a small table in the comer near the front windows. From here, t can look at the artwork on the walls and at the pretty green plants hanging from the ceiling. With a strong cup of coffee and a good book, / feel very happy and relaxed in my favorite cafe.
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Tap Directly Into Your Creative Mind... And Easily Access YOUR Million-Dollar Ideas Ideas are the lifeblood of success... and the best ideas originate with brainstorming. Brainstorming can help you successfully fix any problem, build any business, generate any plan, or develop any story. But the problem is that most people have no clue how to effectively brainstorm - either by themselves or with groups. You can waste a lot of time coming up with old, boring ideas that won't work... and the whole time you actually believe that you are brainstorming.