Documenting Research Sources

I liked writing this paper more than any other paper I've ever done. I think it was because we worked as a team when we toured the factory and later, when we wrote each of the three different drafts of this paper. Everybody pitched in, nobody slacked, we had a really good time, and we even learned how to make ice cream!

Each subject area in the curriculum has developed its own system for documenting sources in research-based papers. Each system does essentially the same thing, yet the conventions for citing and documenting sources within the text vary slightly. A student in English or a foreign language uses the system preferred by the Modern Language Association, or MLA, while a student in the social sciences (psychology, sociology, political science, etc.) uses the American Psychological Association, or APA. These two are the most commonly used across the curriculum; however, disciplines such as history, biology, chemistry, and mathematics each has its own documentation system. If you learn the basics of any one system, such as MLA, which is featured in this book, you can learn any of the others quite easily. If you are not sure which system to use in writing an academic paper, ask your instructor which he or she prefers; if you want to know which system to use when you write a paper for publication in a professional journal (e.g., Change, College English, or The Journal of Chemical Education), study the system used in that journal.

The guidelines for documenting sources outlined in this chapter are brief but basic, and should stand you in good stead for writing most undergraduate papers using MLA conventions. If you are required to write using the conventions of the APA—the other most common system across the curriculum—consult the APA Web site (see p. 163). If you undertake to write a thesis-length work in any discipline, consult your thesis director for the appropriate manual to follow.

If you keep in mind the reason for documenting in the first place, the process won't seem so mysterious or complicated. The reason is simply this: Whenever you solve a problem, answer a question, develop a case, or substantiate an idea, you need to tell your readers where you got that information. Who provided it? What did they say? When did they say it? Where can I look it up? The reason you include citations, references, footnotes, and such in research papers is, essentially, to answer this query: Who said what, when, and where?

MLA DOCUMENTATION

The most common and economical form for documenting sources in research-based English papers is the MLA system described below:

• All sources are briefly mentioned by author name in the text.

• A list of "Works Cited" at the end outlines full publication data for each source named in the paper.

• Additional explanatory information written by the writer of the paper can be included in footnotes or endnotes.

The MLA system is explained in authoritative detail in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 5th ed. (New York:MLA, 1999) and on its Web site <http://www.mla.org>.

Guidelines for In-text Citation

The logic of the MLA format is to identify author and page number in the body of your text as briefly as possible, including only as much information as a reader needs in order to locate the complete source, alphabetically, on the final "Works Cited" page. Footnotes or endnotes are used only for additional comments not appropriate for the text body itself.

Author Not Named in Your Text Identify the author so that readers can look up the full source at the end of your paper. Place the author's last name in parentheses at the end of the sentence (outside the quotation marks, but inside the ending punctuation) followed by the page number:

"In Arthur Miller's 1953 play, The Crucible, the witchcraft trials that took place in Salem, Massachusetts, in 1692, are presented as an open-and-shut case of social injustice" (Rafferty 119).

Author Named in Your Text If you introduce the quote or paraphrase with the author's name so that it is apparent who is speaking, include only the page number in parentheses:

Mark Twain reveals Huckleberry Finn's moral growth after the storm when Huck blurts out, "All right, then, I'll go to hell" (123).

Two or Three Authors For works with two or three authors, include each author's last name (Goswami and Stillman). For works with four or more authors, include only the first author followed by et al. (Spiller, et al. 917).

More Than One Author Cited in Same Sentence If two or more authors are cited in the same sentence, identify each next to the relevant material:

While one critic contends the major influence on Twain was Lincoln's view of democracy (DeVoto), others claim the enduring influence was Calvinism (Spiller, et al. 917).

Multiple Works, Same Author When your "works cited" contains more than one work by the same author, include a shortened version of the title of the book or article you are quoting following the author's name in parentheses:

Twain's voice is both innocent and ironic when he writes, "Animals talk to each other, of course. There can be no question about that, but I suppose there are very few people who can understand them" (Tramp 43).

Unsigned Work If no author is listed in a book or article, identify by short title in the text.

A Source Referred To by Another Source Make a shorthand notation that your source is not from a full original text, using qtd. in for quoted in:

The anthropologist Robert Brain calls romantic love "a lunatic relic of medieval passions" (qtd. in Gray 203).

Long Quotations If you quote five or more lines, indent all the material ten spaces and omit quotation marks (the act of indenting tells the reader the passage is a quotation). Place title and page numbers in parentheses outside the end punctuation. Indented passages are double-spaced. Introduce all quoted material so that readers know what it is and why it's there, and punctuate correctly. For example:

Author and columnist Diane Johnson describes the difficulty in writing neutrally about rape:

No other subject, it seems, is regarded so differently by men and women as rape. Women deeply dread and resent it to an extent that men apparently cannot recognize; it is perhaps the ultimate and essential complaint that women have to make against men. Of course men may recognize that it is wrong to use physical force against another person, and that rape laws are not prosecuted fairly, and so on, but at a certain point they are apt to say, "But what was she doing there at that hour anyway?" or "Luckily he didn't really hurt her," and serious discussion ceases. ("Rape" 296)

Electronic Source If an electronic source uses no page numbers, identify by paragraph number (Smith, par. 5). If the source uses no paragraphs, identify as you would a whole book (Smith).

Footnote or Endnote Supplement in-text citations with notes only when you need to:

1. provide useful information that does not fit easily into the main body of your text

2. comment on a source (There is no confirmation that Twain ever said this.)

3. cite several sources at once

Identify each note by a small raised number in your text where appropriate, then type the same number and the note either at the bottom of the page (footnote) or end of the text (endnote), preceding the "Works Cited" page:

(Four recent cookbooks contain the same salsa recipe1).

Guidelines for "Works Cited" Page

At the end of the paper, type "Works Cited" at the top of a separate page, centered, and list all the textual sources referred to in the paper, following these general guidelines:

1. Alphabetize the list, by author's last name, then first name. If author's name is not given, alphabetize the source by the first main word in the title (exclude A, An, and The).

2. If there are multiple authors, after the first name, list the others in normal order (first name, last name), separating each with a comma.

3. Provide full titles, capitalizing all important words. (For periodicals, omit A, An, or The.) Underline the titles of books and periodicals. Place titles of chapters, poems, and periodical articles in quotation marks.

4. Provide volume and edition number (if relevant) after title.

5. Provide publication information after the title. For books, give city of publication (add state abbreviation if city is small), the name of the publisher (short name only), and date. For periodical articles, give volume or issue number, the date (in parentheses), and the page numbers.

6. Double space each entry and between entries. Indent all lines after the first line, five spaces inch).

Documenting Books

SINGLE AUTHOR

O'Brien, Tim. The Things They Carried. New York: Penguin, 1990.

TWO BOOKS BY ONE AUTHOR

Elbow, Peter. Writing Without Teachers. New York: Oxford UP 1973.

---. Writing With Power. New York: Oxford UP, 1981.

TWO OR THREE AUTHORS

Strunk, William, Jr., and E. B. White. The Elements of Style. 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan, 1979.

MORE THAN THREE AUTHORS

Barr, Mary, et al., What's Going On? Language/Learning Episodes in British and American Classrooms, Grades 4-13. Montclair NJ: Boynton/ Cook, 1982.

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR

American Heritage Dictionary. Second College Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982.

AN EDITOR OR EDITORS

Ellmann, Richard, and Robert O'Clair, eds. Modern Poems: An Introduction to Poetry. New York: Norton, 1976.

more than two volumes

Partington, Vernon L. Main Currents in American Thought. 2 vols. New York: Harcourt, 1927.

Partington, Vernon L. Main Currents in American Thought. Vol. 1. New York: Harcourt, 1927.

a later edition

Aaron, Jane. The Little Brown Essential Handbook for Writers. 2nd ed. New York: Longman, 1997.

a translation

Camus, Albert. The Stranger. Trans. Stuart Gilbert. New York: Random House, 1946.

a chapter in an anthology

Britton,James. "The Composing Processes and the Functions of Writing." Research on Composing. Eds. Charles R. Cooper and Lee Odell. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English, 1978.

an introduction, preface, foreword, or afterword

Graff, Gerald. Afterword. When Writing Teachers Teach Literature. Eds. Art Young and Toby Fulwiler. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1995.

an unsigned article in a reference book

"Style Manual." The American Heritage Dictionary. 2nd College Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982.

Documenting Periodicals a signed article in journal

Ohmann, Richard. "Reflections on Chaos and Language." College English 44 (1982): 1-17.

a signed article in monthly or bimonthly magazine

Mayersohn, Norman. "Rad Wheels." Popular Mechanics May, 1987: 84-87.

a signed article in a weekly or biweekly magazine

Hoffman, Michael. "Hardly Cricket." The New Yorker 2 Dec. 1996:113-114.

DAILY NEWSPAPER

"Ex-Officials See Lobbyists' View." The Burlington Free Press 12 April 1987, sec. 2: 1.

AN UNSIGNED ARTICLE

"The Decade of the Spy." Newsweek 7 Mar. 1994: 26-27.

Documenting Electronic Databases

The "Works Cited" entries for electronic databases (newsletters, journals, and conferences) are similar to entries for articles in printed periodicals: cite the author's name; the article or document title in quotation marks; the newsletter, journal, or conference title; the number of the volume or issue; the year or date of publication (in parentheses); and the number of pages, if available.

PERIODICALLY UPDATED CD-ROM DATABASE

James, Caryn. "An Army As Strong As Its Weakest Link." New York Times 16 Sep. 1994: C8 New York Times Ondisc. CD-ROM. UMI-Proquest. Oct. 1994.

If a database comes from a printed source such as a book, periodical, or collection of bibliographies or abstracts, cite this information first, followed by the title of the database (underlined), the medium of publication, the vendor name (if applicable), and the date of electronic publication. If no printed source is available, include the title of the material accessed (in quotation marks), the date of the material if given, the underlined title of the database, the medium of publication, the vendor name, and the date of electronic publication.

Portable databases are much like books and periodicals. Their entries in "Works Cited" lists are similar to those for printed material except that you must also include the following items.

• The medium of publication (CD-ROM, diskette, magnetic tape).

• The name of the vendor, if known (this may be different from the name of the organization that compiled the information, which must also be included).

• The date of electronic publication, in addition to the date the material was originally published (e.g., reprinted book).

NONPERIODICAL CD-ROM PUBLICATION

"Rhetoric." The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. CD-ROM. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1992.

List a nonperiodical CD-ROM as you would a book, adding the medium of publication and information about the source, if applicable. If citing only part of a work, underline the title of the selected portion or place it within quotation marks, as appropriate (as you would the title of a printed short story, poem, article, essay, or similar source).

DISKETTE OR MAGNETIC TAPE PUBLICATION

Lanham, Richard D. The Electronic Word: Democracy, Technology, and the Arts. Diskette. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1993.

List these in the "Works Cited" section as you would a book, adding the medium of publication (e.g., diskette or magnetic tape).

Documenting On-line Sources

Documenting a World Wide Web (WWW) or other Internet source follows the same basic guidelines as documenting other texts: who said what, where, and when. However, important differences need to be noted. In citing on-line sources from the World Wide Web or electronic mail (E-mail), two dates are important: the date the text was created (published) and the date you found the information (accessed the site). When both publication and access dates are available, provide both.

However, many WWW sources are often updated or changed, leaving no trace of the original version, so always provide the access date which documents that this information was available on that particular date. Thus, most electronic source entries will end with an access date immediately followed by the electronic address: 23 Dec. 2001 <http:// www.cas.usf.edu/english>. The angle brackets < > identify the source as Internet.

The following guidelines are derived from the MLA Web site <http:/ /www.mla.org>. To identify a WWW or Internet source, include, if available, the following items in the following order, each punctuated by a period, except date of access.

• Author (or editor, compiler, or translator)—If known, full name, last name first (if unknown, include alias).

• Title—Include title of poems, short stories, articles in quotation marks. Include title of posting to discussion list or forum in quotation marks followed by "On-line posting." Underline the titles of full-length published sources (books, magazines, films, recordings).

• Editor, compiler, or translator—Include name, if not cited earlier, followed by appropriate abbreviation: Ed., Com., Tran.

• Print source—Include the same information as in a printed citation.

• Title—Of scholarly project, database, personal, or professional site (underlined); if no title, include description such as "Home page." Include name of editor if available.

• Identifying number—For a journal, include volume and issue number.

• Date of electronic publication

• Discussion list information—Include full name or title of list or forum.

• Page, paragraph, or section numbers

• Sponsorship or affiliation—Include the name of any organization or institution sponsoring this site.

• Date of access—Include date you visited this site.

• Electronic address—Include within angle brackets < >.

PUBLISHED WEB SITE

Beller, Jonathon L. "What's Inside The Insider?" Pop Matters Film. 1999. 21 May 2000 <http://popmatters. com/film/insider.html>.

PERSONAL WEB SITE

Fulwiler,Toby. Home page. 2 Apr. 2000 <http://www.uvm.edu/~tfulwile>.

PROFESSIONAL WEB SITE

Yellow Wall-Paper Site. U of Texas. 1995. 4 Mar. 1998 <http://www.cwrl .utexas.edu/,daniel/amlit/wallpaper/>.

BOOK

Twain, Mark. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. Internet Wiretap Online Library.4Jan. 1998.Carnegie-MellonU.4 Oct. 1998 <http://www.cs.cmu .edu/Web/People/rgs/sawyr-table.html>.

To interrupt an electronic address at the end of a line, hit return, but do not hyphenate.

poem

Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Raven." American Review, 1845. Poetry Archives, 8 Sep. 1998. <http://tqd.advanced.org/3247/cgi-bin/dispoem .cgi?poet=poe.edgar&poem>.

article in a journal

Erkkila, Betsy. "The Emily Dickinson Wars." Emily Dickinson Journal 5.2 (1996): 14 pars. 8 Nov. 1988 <http://www.colorado.edu/EDIS/journal/ index.html> .

article in a reference database

"Victorian." Britannica Online. Vers. 97.1.1 Mar. 1997. Encyclopedia Britannica. 2 Dec.1998 <http://www.eb.com:180>.

e-mail or listserv

Fulwiler, Toby. "A Question About Electronic Sources." 23 May 2000. E-mail to the author. U. Vermont.

If you quote a personal message sent by somebody else, be sure to get permission before including his or her address on the "Works Cited" page.

Documenting Other Sources an unpublished dissertation

Smith, Peter. "Literacy Reconsidered." Diss. U of Vermont, 1994.

recording

Springsteen, Bruce. Nebraska. Columbia, TC38358, 1982. television/radio

Rather, Dan. CBS Evening News. 13 April 1987. SAMPLE RESEARCH PAPER, MLA STYLE

The following research essay examines Ben & Jerry's Homemade Ice Cream Company as an institution concerned with issues of both local and national importance. It was researched and written by the team of Michelle Anderson, Pamela Jurentkuff, Sandy Martin, Heather Mulcahy, and Jennifer Stanislaw. The essay gains authority by using both local and electronic library research, in addition to personal interviews and site visits. They also composed the essay with a lively, first-person plural voice (we) to which they added other voices they encountered along the way.

The essay is not included here as a model for you to follow. Instead, read it as one possibility for combining formal academic research and the MLA style with a lively personal voice.

BEN & JERRY'S HOMEMADE ICE CREAM COMPANY: CARING CAPITALISM AT WORK

Ben and Jerry's Homemade Ice Cream Company has developed an international reputation for making "the world's best ice cream" while, at the same time, setting a new standard for the social responsibility of American corporations. Numerous trips to the local scoop shop had already convinced our research team—Pam, Sandy, Heather, Michelle, and Jennifer—that Ben and Jerry's ice cream was good; now we wanted to find out the rest of the scoop.

THE SCOOP (SHOP)

When you enter the front door of Ben and Jerry's Homemade Ice Cream Shop in downtown Burlington, Vermont, you find yourself standing on a clean, tiled, black-and-white checkered floor. To the left are three dark-red booths with white tables, just big enough for four people to look out onto the street while eating their ice cream. The opposite wall is covered with eight black-and-white spotted cows standing in a lush, green field, probably somewhere in Vermont. The sky above them is a bright blue with several white, puffy clouds.

Just around the corner are five black steps that lead to the upstairs where the ice cream is sold. At the top of the stairs, next to a white metal wastebasket, is a blue plastic sign that says, "We are now recycling spoons!"

On the right wall is the white, chest high ice cream counter. Behind it a colorful, wooden sign reads, "Today's Euphoric Flavors," listing twenty-nine flavors, including Cherry Garcia, Chocolate Chip Cookie Dough, Chunky Monkey, Heathbar Crunch, Coffee Heathbar Crunch, New York Super Fudge Chunk, and Rainforest Crunch. To the left of the flavors, is a white sign with black writing that tells the prices—$1.44 for a small, $1.84 for a medium, $2.60 for a large.

Sitting on the counter, in glass containers, are waffle cones, almonds, walnuts, Jimmies, M&Ms, and Reese's Pieces. At the end of the counter sits a freezer with factory-second pints, chocolate chip ice-cream sandwiches, and Peace Pops—in case you want to take some home with you, which most people, including us, want to do.

One of the reasons we chose to investigate Ben and Jerry's was to find out more about the delicious ice cream that we love to eat. We asked the person behind the counter, "How do you get the names of the flavors for the ice cream?"

"Most of them are pretty basic. Well, like Cherry Garcia was thought up by a Grateful Dead fan in Maine. Some lady in New Hampshire wrote in with the idea of Chunkey Monkey. They gave her a lifetime supply of the ice cream and it turns out she doesn't even like it" (Martin).

The three workers behind the counter all seem to be having fun while scooping ice cream and joking with the steady line of customers. They are all wearing Ben & Jerry's T-shirts, but different hats—a blue beret, a baseball cap, a beanie. We asked the nearest scooper, a young woman named Susan, "Why do you all wear hats?"

"Actually, it's a health regulation. We have to keep our hair back. In the factory they have to wear elastic caps and all-white sanitary outfits. Here we're encouraged to have fun with it. We wear all different types. I'm known for my Viking hat that I often wear. I wear my hair braided, they all nickname me Helga."

Another scooper adds: "There are some limitations. Like they wouldn't let me wear a hat made out of a pair of jeans or one out of a paper bag. But I have a great hat planned for Christmas. It's a secret though."

It was clear from our visit to Ben and Jerry's main scoop shop in downtown Burlington, that both eating and serving ice cream could be fun. How, we wondered, did such a funky business get started?

IN THE BEGINNING

Ben and Jerry's Homemade Ice Cream company began when two old friends from Long Island, Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield, decided to honor a childhood pact that one day they would go into business together and "do something more fun" (Hubbard 57). At the time, Ben was working with emotionally unstable children in New York, and Jerry was a lab technician in North Carolina. They selected Burlington, Vermont, as just the right sized rural college town for a small food business—a food and ice cream emporium, as they first envisioned it ("Solid"). However, neither Ben nor Jerry had any experience in making ice cream, so in 1977 they took a five-dollar correspondence course in ice cream making from Penn State. In 1978 they received a four thousand dollar loan which, combined with eight thousand dollars in savings, was enough to establish the first Ben and Jerry's scoop shop—an old run-down gas station on the corner of St. Paul and College Street, which opened on May 5, 1978.

At first Ben and Jerry tried to sell both bagels and ice cream. As Jerry tells it, "At first it was almost like a race to see who would sell the most, would it be Ben with his bagels covered with marinated artichoke hearts, mushrooms, and sliced cucumber? Or Jerry with his Sweet Cream Oreo ice cream?" (Greene). They saw the handwriting on the wall when everybody bought the ice cream and nobody bought the bagels. So at the end of 1979, Ben gave up the bagels and joined Jerry in the ice cream business.

The ice cream succeeded because it was hand made in an old fashioned rock salt ice cream maker; the flavors were original and fun; and they claimed to use only Vermont dairy products and strictly natural ingredients. They also double-flavored their ice cream, making it with twice as much flavor as a recipe normally called for. How did they know how much flavoring was enough? "Well when we first started, I made the ice cream and Ben tasted it. If Ben couldn't tell what flavor the ice cream was with his eyes closed, he would tell me it needed more flavoring" (Greene).

After a year in business, Ben and Jerry celebrated by offering free ice cream cones to all their customers. "We always told ourselves that if we were still open after the end of the first year, we'd give away free cones on or about our anniversary" (Smith). The demand for their ice cream became so great that often their daily supply was not enough, forcing them to introduce the International No Ice Cream Sign, a cone with a red slash through it symbolizing that there is no ice cream left for the day.

However, it took time and practice to perfect their recipes. Jerry remembers, "I once made a batch of Rum Raisin that stretched and bounced" (Hubbard 57). By 1981, however, through the process of trial and error, they were noted in Time magazine for making "The best ice cream in the world" ("They").

By 1983, the small shop in downtown Burlington could not generate enough ice cream to keep up with the streams of customers that poured in each day, so they relocated their main store to Cherry Street and their production facilities to the outskirts of town. By 1986, when they launched a nationwide campaign, distributing free ice cream around the country from a black and white "Cowmobile," they needed an even larger plant, so they reestablished their headquarters in Waterbury, Vermont, some forty miles east of Burlington, where they continue to produce the majority of their ice cream.

MAKING THE "WORLD'S BEST ICE CREAM"

Our research team toured the Ben and Jerry's Ice Cream Plant in Waterbury to see how the ice cream is actually made. The main lobby smelled like peppermint and was packed with people holding ice cream cones in one hand and T-shirts, sweatshirts, bumper stickers, boxer shorts, cow socks, and hats in the other. We were surprised to find so many people there in the middle of the week in the middle of a Vermont winter.

We arrived just in time to take the noon tour. We joined a dozen other people and slowly followed our tour guide, Rick, into a long corridor with light green trees, pale yellow flowers, and bright pink birds painted on the walls. A tape recording of toucans and other tropical birds played in the background—"Vermont's only tropical rain forest," Rick laughed.

From the rain forest we entered another long hallway with a large window that looked down over the production room where the ice cream is made. The number 44,560 was painted in big, black, bold numbers on the wall. This is their record pint production for a seventeen hour period, enough ice cream for an individual to eat a pint a day for one hundred ninety-six years. You might think that this is a lot of ice cream, but every employee takes home three pints a day. "It's a wonderful benefit," Rick explained, "but not too good for the waistline, which is why Ben & Jerry's also offers a free health club membership to everyone that works there."

The ice cream begins in the Blend Tank, a two hundred forty lb. stainless steel tank that combines Vermont milk, cream, egg yolks, unrefined sugar, and the flavor of the day. From there, the mix is sent in big vats to the thirty-six degree Tank Room, where it sits for four to eight hours before it receives further flavoring.

The plant has two production lines. On this day, one was making Coffee Heath Bar Crunch and the other Mint Oreo, which are good sellers, but not their top sellers. The current top five flavors are Heath Bar Crunch, New York Super Fudge Chunk, Cherry Garcia, Rainforest Crunch, and Chunkey Monkey, flavors that have proved popular year in and year out in all parts of the country.

From the Tank Room, the mix moves into four, three hundred gallon Flavor Vats, so they can put in the peppermint extract for the Mint Oreo and the coffee extract for the Coffee Heath Bar Crunch. From the Flavor Vat, the mix goes to the Fruit Feeder, where they mix in big chunks of Oreos or Heath Bar or whatever chunks they need for the ice cream they are producing on that day.

After all the ingredients are put into the mix, the mix is sent through a freezer made to hold seven hundred fifty gallons of ice cream, turned by a crank which adds air to the ice cream. Companies are allowed up to a 100% overrun—for every one gallon of mix, two gallons of ice cream should come out. However, Rick told us that "Ben & Jerry's has a twenty percent overrun, making it much thicker than standard commercial ice cream found in supermarkets."

The automatic filler fills the pints, sometimes in the wrong container. When this happens, the pint becomes a "factory second" and is sold in local stores in Vermont at a lower price. Vermonters are used to finding the "seconds" freezers full, but according to Rick, only two percent of their pints become factory seconds. Mistakes are identified in the Quality Control Room, where every hour four pints are taken and tested for color, taste, texture, and consistency.

The packaged ice cream is then sent to the Spiral Hardening Tunnel to be frozen solid at thirty-five degrees below zero. A life size doll, called "Freezer Fred," sits in a snowsuit watching the ice cream as it passes through the tunnel. We poked our noses into the tunnel, but did not stay long. After that, the packages are sent to shipping for distribution throughout the country.

We enjoyed the thirty-minute tour, but felt a little self-conscious because we were the only ones taking notes. One man in the production room picked up a pad of paper and started taking notes to mimic us. At one point, Rick said over the loud speaker, "Looks like we have a lot of people taking notes here today, doesn't it?" Our faces turned red and we all started laughing. But in the end, Rick gave us free ice cream to take home, which is exactly what we hoped for. (For more information about Ben & Jerry's factory tours, see their site on the World Wide Web: http:// benjerry.com/tourinfo.html).

The tour impressed us, and the cleanliness and efficiency of the whole operation made it clear that the workers enjoy their jobs. But we still wondered where the Ben & Jerry's reputation as a "socially responsible company" came from, so we continued our investigation.

"CARING CAPITALISM AND SOCIAL ACTIVISM"

According to a story in People magazine, by 1984 Ben realized that, "We're no longer ice cream men, but businessmen" (Hubbard 58). Since their opening in 1978, their profits increased annually. Being businessmen instead of icecream men, however, made the two old friends nervous. As Ben said in a Washington Post interview, "We were sitting at desks, and we were people's bosses and giving orders. Growing up in the 60s, being a businessman wasn't a cool thing to do. I started feeling we were a cog in the economic machine" (Kurtz). How much of a cog you wonder? Their most recent net sales for the quarter ending April 1, 1995, were $34,205,000, up from $32,191,000 for the same time the previous year ("Ben & Jerry's First").

However, Ben and Jerry also realized that just because they were successful businessmen who made money, they didn't have to change what they believed in. In fact, their substantial annual income allows them to make a profit and give to their community at the same time. Jerry explained, "Early on, we knew that if we stayed in the business, it was because of the support of a lot of people, so it seemed natural to want to return that support" (Hubbard 55). They began to sell public stocks to Vermonters to keep their center of operations within the state.

Ben and Jerry believe in a concept called "Caring Capitalism and Social Activism," which means giving a percent of the profits back to the community. Every day seven-and-a-half percent of the company's profits go to a worthy nonprofitable organization and to preserving the environment. They developed a Statement of Mission, which explains the product mission, the social mission, and the economic mission:

Product Mission—To make, distribute, and sell the finest quality, all natural ice cream and related products in a wide variety of innovative flavors made from Vermont dairy products.

Social Mission—To operate the company in a way that actively recognizes the central role that business plays in the structure of society by initiating innovative ways to improve the quality of life of a broad community—local, national, and international.

Economic Mission—To operate the company on a sound financial basis of profitable growth, increasing value for our shareholders, and creating career opportunities and financial rewards for our employees.

Underlying the mission of Ben and Jerry's is the determination to seek new and creative ways of addressing all three parts, while holding a deep respect for the individuals, inside and outside the company, and for the communities of which they are a part. (About 5)

Part of their social mission is evident in the program called "One Percent for Peace," a campaign that advocates redirecting one percent of the United States defense budget to a global effort "to solve world problems of hunger, disease, the environment, poverty, and human rights" (Kurtz). Whenever you buy a Peace Pop, chocolate covered ice cream on a stick, you help promote this campaign.

In addition to promoting peace, Ben and Jerry's promotes helping people. According to Ben and Jerry's Annual Report, Greyston Bakery, based in Yonkers, New York, supplies Ben and Jerry's with brownies for use in their Brownie Bars and their Chocolate Fudge Brownie Ice Cream. The bakery employees are people who are unemployed and without homes who are trying to better themselves and improve their lifestyles. Greyston donates the majority of its profits to programs that "assist such disadvantaged citizens in becoming economic and social contributors to the community" (Severance 7).

The company's social concerns include consumer health issues. Recently, Ben & Jerry's has taken a stand against using dairy products from cows injected with bovine growth hormones (BGH) that are meant to increase milk production. They argue that artificially injected hormones may affect the quality of the milk as well as pose health risks for consumers. Consequently, though the Food and Drug Administration does not require it, they label their packaged ice cream as BGH free ("Ben & Jerry's Position").

Ben & Jerry's also promotes environmental issues, such as saving the rain forests in Brazil by directing a percent of the profits from Rainforest Crunch ice cream and Rain Forest Buttercrunch candy, which is manufactured by Community Products Inc. of Montpelier, VT, a company founded in 1989 and directed by Ben Cohen. Both the ice cream and candy contain Brazil and cashew nuts purchased from Cultural Survival, a human rights organization, which is using the profits to set up Brazil nut processing plants owned and operated by natives of Brazil. They provide a market for rainforest products which helps to decrease the destruction of the forests.

Closer to home, Ben and Jerry's does all it can to contribute to the safety of the environment. Remember that sign about recycling spoons when you first entered the Burlington scoop shop? At every Ben and Jerry's scoop shop there are big buckets for depositing used plastic spoons. On every table the napkin dispensers have a sign saying, "Save a tree, please take only one napkin." Presently, they are recycling approximately sixty percent of their paper supply products either to outside recyclers or for internal use as note paper. The company is now looking for an alternative material for their pint containers, because they are made from paperboard and covered with a plastic coating for moisture resistance. "As a result of this and other recycling efforts, we have reduced our solid waste volume by about 30 percent this year" (Severance 6).

Ben and Jerry's is a growing enterprise which shows continued signs of world-wide expansion, not only because they make and market an excellent product, but because they care about the future of the planet. Their socially-responsible and profitable business practices have gained the partners the support of both environmentalists and the business community. The wonderful tastes of their Heath Bar Crunch and Chunky Monkey have gained them our support as well.

Works Cited

About Ben & Jerry. Pamphlet. Burlington, VT 1.

"Ben & Jerry's Homemade, Inc. Announces 1995 First Quarter Results." http:/www.benjerry.com/library/quarterly-statements/1st-qtr-1995.html 25 November 1996. "Ben & Jerry's Position on BGH." http:/www.benjerry.com/bj-position-

bgh.html 25 November 1996. "Ben and Jerry's Sells Boston Franchises." The Burlington Free Press 5 June 1984: B1.

Greene, Robert. Personal interview. 30 October 1984. Hubbard, Kim. "For New Age Ice Cream Moguls Ben and Jerry, Making Cherry Garcia' and Chunkey Monkey' Is A Labor of Love." People 1990, 55-58.

Kurtz, Howard. "Ben and Jerry: Premium Ice Cream Sprinkled with Liberal

Ideology." Washington Post 4, Oct. 1989: A3. Martin, Sandy. Personal interview. 12 October 1990. Severance, Lyn. Ben & Jerry's Annual Report. Boston: Daniels Printing 1995. Smith, James L. "Ben and Jerry's Homemade Meltdown of Total Pleasure."

Rutland Herald, 23, Feb 1981: 2. "Their Ice Cream Takes the Cake." Sunday Times Union 26 Sep. 1982: C1. "They All Scream For It." Time 10 Aug. 1981: 42.

A NOTE ON APA DOCUMENTATION

Papers written for disciplines in the social sciences, business, and education use the name-and-date system of documentation put forth by the American Psychological Association (APA). The APA citation style highlights dates of publication following authors' names in the text; each paper concludes with a "References"page (similar to MLA's "Works Cited" page) where the full citation can be found. While APA citations contain the same information as MLA citations, the details for citing entries differ in a number of ways. If an instructor asks you to follow APA documentation style, consult the APA Web page <http://www.apa.org/> or the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th ed. (Washington: APA, 2001).

SUGGESTIONS FOR JOURNAL WRITING

1. Mark the passages in the Ben & Jerry's research essay that you most enjoy. Mark those that seem dull or tedious. Explain the difference.

2. Name an institution in your community that would lend itself to both an on-site investigation as well as library research. Imagine at least two different approaches or angles you might take if you investigated this institution.

SUGGESTIONS FOR WRITING RESEARCH ESSAYS

1. INDIVIDUAL: Select an institution that exists within a one-mile radius of where you live. Visit that institution, interview employees and customers and, if possible, take a guided tour. Then collect any artifacts and photograph or photocopy any printed material put out by this place. Finally, look up its history by checking local records, libraries, or newspapers. Write a first-person story—a personal research essay—detailing the process and results of your research.

2. COLLABORATIVE: Do assignment number one by selecting a team of classmates to help you. Either select an institution and recruit co-researchers or team up and together select an institution to study.

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