On the whole, I believe that those cities suffering as a result of urban growth could solve their problems, given financial support. Sadly, however, the chances of this happening are slight, especially in developing countries. Should we not, therefore, be thinking about encouraging people to return to rural areas in order to shift the balance of populations?
To sum up, gender should not be an issue in any workplace, since a powerfully-built female is just as capable of hard manual labour as a kind and gentle male is of child-care. The only obstacles are those which exist in our own minds; as the American therapist Dr F. S. Perls once said, "We have to lose our minds to come to our senses."
All in all, it is easy to understand the reasons behind the continued existence of capital punishment in a number of countries. In spite of this, however, I cannot personally condone it, since to my mind the act itself is simply legalised murder, the ultimate crime.
Look at the quotations and the essay subjects below. Which quotation would be most relevant to each of the topics, and which type of essay does each topic require?
or you're part of the problem." (Eidridge Cleaver)
C. "One machine can do the work of 50 ordinary men. No machine can do the work of an extraordinary man." (Elbert Hubbard)
B. "A mother never realises that her children are no longer children." (Holbrook Jackson)
D. "Education is what survives when what has been learnt is forgotten." (B.F. Skinner)
E. "it is the familiar that usually eludes us in life. What is before our nose is what we see last."
(Professor William Barret)
1 "Too much emphasis is placed on educational qualifications." What are your views?
2 "Teenagers have an important contribution to make to society." Discuss.
3 "It is everyone's responsibility to protect the environment." Discuss.
4 "People today take material comfort for granted." Do you agree?
5 "As technology advances, humans are becoming redundant." Discuss the problem and suggest what might be done to remedy the situation.
yfiP^ Useful Tips for Discursive Essays
/' • When writing a discursive essay, you should: / / use formal, impersonal style (see Formal Style, p. 56)
/ use topic sentences to introduce the subject of each paragraph / write well-developed paragraphs, giving reasons/examples
✓ use generalisations (e.g.ln most developed countries, education...)
✓ use sequencing (e.g. Firstlly, SecondJIy, etc) and linking words/phrases
(e.g. however, although, etc) / make references to other sources (e.g. Experte have proved that...) / use quotations, either word-for-word or in paraphrase, being careful to identify the source (e.g. As Winston Churchill said, "... )
X use short forms, informal/colloquial language, etc (see Formal Style, p. 56) X use very emotional language (e.g. I absolutely detest people who...) X express personal opinions too strongly (e.g. I know... ) , instead, use milder expressions (e.g. It seems to me that...) X use over-generalisationCe.gr. AH politicians are...) X refer blindly to statistics without accurate reference to their source
(e.g. "A recent study showed..." - which study?) X use clichés (e.g. Rome was not built in a day.) X use personal examples (e.g. In my school...)
7 Read the two models and give reasons why model A is good and model B is bad.
"Money is not the most important thing in life. " Discuss.
7 Read the two models and give reasons why model A is good and model B is bad.
3 Money is certainly something which is often discussed in today's world. Hardly a day goes by without the subject of money being raised in most people's lives. However, it is highly debatable whether it is more important than other considerations, such as health and happiness, which some people consider to be of greater significance.
To begin with, it is often argued that having money enables people to exert influence over others. Wealthy businessmen, for example, are often the most highly respected members of society, and business tycoons are often consulted by world leaders, who then make policies which affect the whole population. As a consequence, money can be seen as the single most important factor in daily life.
Secondly, from the point of view of the individual, money is vital for survival. Western society is structured in such a way that, without money; people are deprived of the means to obtain proper nutrition and health care. Furthermore, in some cases where state benefits are inadequate, the inability to pay heating bills can indeed become a matter of life and death. This is clearly illustrated by the fact that, according to Social Services, the majority of deaths due to hypother
| E3 in recent years life has greatly impro
J The standard of living is higher and all pe j can afford to buy things they couldn't in
} past. I truly believe that life today is better
| many things make people happy.
| To begin with, unless people are health; j person's life is unbearable and not wc f living. When my father was seriously ill | hospital, I clearly remember how nothing e j mattered to any of us, and we then learnt tl i the people we love are more important th ) money.
; Then there's the question of your boyfriei ! or girlfriend. I don't think it matters if they' rich - although it would be nice! What more important is whether you see eye 1 eye. I once went out with a really rich guy bi we didn't get on and I finished with him. Thi shows that money isn't everything.
Also, statistics show that different peoplt can be unhappy. Rich people can be just as unhappy as poor people. So why do some people always say that money is everything? I know they're wrong to think that. Money can't buy happiness.
But it's nice to live a life of luxury. Why take the bus when you can take a taxi? And why not send your children to the best schools and pay for the best doctors? There's no doubt about it, it's a good feeling being rich and powerful.
So, money is great - while it lasts! But you can't beat having a good time. So if you've got money, make the most of it and if you're happy, enjoy yourself.
mia each winter occur among low-income groups. *
On the other hand, many people claim that one of the factors in which is undoubtedly of greater importance than money is health. Izaak Walton said, health is "a blessing that money cannot bu What is more, money is of little consolation to those who are suff ing from health problems. Despite the fact that money can pay for i best medical care available, this is no guarantee of a longer life.
In addition, most people would agree that personal happine easily outweighs money in importance. Even if an individual extremely rich, this does not necessarily lead to happiness. In soi cases, the contrary is true and vast wealth brings with it a wh range of problems and insecurities. Genuine happiness cannot bought and is usually independent of financial status.
On the whole, although there are those who would rank money the single most important thing in life, the vast majority would d agree. Money, they argue, has an important part to play but perha the world would be a more harmonious place to live in if this wi kept in proportion and society put more emphasis on moral issue
/fir The Discussion Clock
/ • When considering a topic you may refer to the discussion clock, which ' will help you think of ideas when planning your essay.
• Referring to the discussion clock is a useful "brainstorming" technique, as it helps you examine a topic from various viewpoints and decide on ideas/ points to include in your essay.
• Keep in mind that a topic may not relate to all the aspects presented in the discussion clock.
• Remember that for each viewpoint you have thought of, there is usually an opposing argument. Think of the opposing arguments when planning your essay.
8 Match each of the following viewpoints with the corresponding opposing argument.
1 From a political point of view, space exploration enables super- ; powers to demonstrate their level of technical advancement.
2 From a scientific standpoint, space exploration has been responsible j for rapid developments in materials and processes which have also ; been of benefit to people on earth.
3 From an economic standpoint, the investment of time and money in space exploration could, in future, repay humanity many times \ over. The discovery of resources in outer space could be of great benefit to our planet.
4 Regarding the social implications of space exploration, there are ; those who argue that the potential that other planets hold for coloni- 1 sation could prove to be the salvation of the human race. \
However, it can be argued that the money would be better spent on alleviating the problems of developing countries. Nevertheless, many sociologists argue that colonies in space would create more social problems than they would solve. On the other hand, some political analysts claim that the Space Race has led to unnecessary competition between nations and a consequent failure to cooperate and collaborate on international issues.
Opponents argue that space technology is of limited use to society and that the, research could be used more profitably to try to solve some of the more pressing problems which we face.
9 Read the points below, and looking at the discussion clock identify the aspect each viewpoint relates to.
1 As far as is concerned, allowing cigarettes to be advertised is extremely damaging, since cigarette smoking causes cancer and heart problems, as well as affecting unborn babies.
2 From a standpoint, it may be argued that the individual faces such problems as depression, anxiety and attempted suicide, as a result of the pressures of modern life.
3 From a(n) viewpoint, popular sports create jobs for a large number of people in addition to generating income for the state.
aspect, allowing children at school to express themselves more freely would help them to develop their creative talents.
5 With regard to
matters, the use of computers gives students a chance to increase their knowledge and develop their research skills.
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