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Final Paragraph give balanced consideration/ yo opinion expressed directly/incfire

* You may include more paragrapt the main body if you wish to inc more points

Over the years, mankind has recognised the need for personal and social freedom, and this is perhaps one of the m important social advancements ever made. However, whether it has led to increased personal happiness is highly det able; many people would argue that greater freedom has led to increased social disorder and personal dissatisfactioi

Firstly, it is true that people are now more at liberty to choose how to live their lives. For example, in the Western w< at least, the choice of where to live, what career to pursue and which religion to follow has never been greater. In addi to this people have more leisure time in which to enjoy a wider range of recreational activities. On the other hand, it r be argued that this increased freedom can lead people to take things for granted and expect too much from life. As example of this, the greater choice of material goods available has resulted in people quickly growing bored with t possessions. Consequently, no sooner have they acquired something new than they tire of it. They find short-term \ piness in material goods and entertainment, but boredom and frustration soon send them looking for fresh distractic

Secondly social and moral attitudes have become less rigid. This has allowed for a greater variety of lifestyles and n freedom in human relations. This is illustrated by the fact that pupils and teachers now treat each other as equals, parent-child relationships are now much more relaxed. Nevertheless, some people believe that this increase in free has resulted in the escalation of social problems. They argue that the current lack of discipline has given rise to a br down in the traditional family and the decay in educational standards as well as the rise in juvenile delinquency. Thi may be said that society is becoming more and more dangerous because of the very fact that people are more 0 minded than they were in the past.

To conclude, there is evidence both to support and refute the view that greater freedom does not necessarily le; greater happiness. On the one hand, people have more opportunities to raise their standard of living. On the other t the many examples of protests, strikes and criminal activities which are a feature of modern society are a sign although people may be free, they are not necessarily happier.

17 Read the following arguments and match each argument in favour of using animals for entertainment with the corresponding argument against. Then, following the paragraph plan on page 68, say which arguments you would include in each paragraph. Finally, write a clear topic sentence for each paragraph.

Arguments for using animals for entertainment.

1 Zoos can be educational and also help to increase the numbers of endangered species through controlled breeding programmes.

2 Animals used in television programmes, advertisements and films are very appealing and attract large audiences.

3 Circus animals are loved, well-treated and only perform for short periods.

4 Racing animals have a very short working life and are well-treated throughout.

Arguments against using animals for entertainment.

a Animals are forced to perform unnatural acts for the pleasure of the public.

b Keeping animals in cages so the public can see them is unnecessary because documentaries produced today take away the need for such places.

c With new technology and special effects, there is no need to use live animals as realistic models can be used instead.

d Racing animals have gruelling training schedules and are often placed in unnecessary danger.

18 US First, think of as many points for and against early retirement as possible. Then listen to the cassette and fill in the gaps in the boxes below. Were your arguments the same as those you heard? Finally, write the paragraph plan you would use if you were to write an essay on the topic:

"Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of early retirement"

• more free time and friends against

19 Read the following composition topic and answer the questions below.

"Should countries encourage tourism?" Discuss.

• What are the two sides of the question?

• Which of the following arguments are for and which against?

1 The desire to attract tourists to a certain area often encourages governments to improve local facilities.

2 Over-development leads to ugly, crowded tourist spots and environmental damage.

3 The impact of tourism may destroy the local way of life.

4 Many people claim that tourism is an important source of income.

5 A country's economy may become so dependent on tourism that it is weakened.

6 Tourism allows people to experience other cultures.

• What aspects of the discussion clock do these arguments deal with?

• Can you think of any additional arguments?

• Which paragraph plan would you follow to write this essay?

• Which arguments would you include and in what order?

• Which techniques would you use to begin and end your essay?

• Which useful phrases and linking words could you use?

20 Now, using the information from your answers to the above questions, write the essay in about 350 words.

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