1 Describing People 4
2 Describing Places/Buildings 18
3 Describing Objects 32
4 Describing Fesiivols/Evenls/Ceremonies 34
5 Norrolives 38
Study Check 1 52
6 Discursive Essays 54
o. For and Against Essoys 60
b. Opinion Essoys 70
c. Essoys Suggesting Solutions to Problems 76
1 Letters 82
o. Letters of Request 85
i. Letters of Advice 93
ii. Letters Making Suggestions/Recommendations 95
iii. Letters to the Authorities/Editor 97
d. Letters of Complaint 101
e. Letters of Apology 105
f. Letters of Application 107
g. Transactional Letters Ill
Study Check 2 118
8 Reports 120
a. Assessment Reports 122
b. Informative Reports 126
c. Survey Reports 128
d. Proposal Reports 132
Study Check 3 135
9 Articles/News Reports/Reviews 136
a. Articles 139
b. News Reports 144
c. Reviews 150
Study Check 4 154
Appendix: Linking Words/Phrases 158
1 Look at the people in the photographs and talk about each in terms of appearance. personality and life/lifestyle.
Appearance: How wvuldyou describe each person v appearance?
Which features of their appearance arc most noticeable? What does their way of sitting, looking, etc. suggest?
Personality: What do you imagine each person is like?
Life & Lifestyle: II hut else do you imagine about each person concerning such things as profession, ambitions, interests hobbies, daily routine, etc?
UNIT 1 Describing People r , composition describing a person should consist of: J a) an introduction giving brief information about who the person is, where/how you met him/her. how you heard about him/her, etc;
b) a main body whicn may include description of such things as physical appearance, personality/behaviour, manner/mannerisms and'or details of the person's life and lifestyle, (hobbies, interests, everyday activities, etc.) and c) a conclusion in which you comment on why the person is of interest, express your feelings/opinion concerning the person, etc.
In a descriptive composition of a person, you may also be asked to explain why this person is successful/admirable;'unusual, etc, why he/she made such a strong impression on you, how he/she has influenced you etc.
Each paragraph should stan with a topic.sentence which summarises the paragraph. The content of the paragraph depends on the topic itself and where the emphasis <s placed
Descriptions of people may be included in several other types of writing tasks such as narratives, letters, assessment reports, etc.
To describe physical appearance you should give details of the person's height-build, age, facial features, hair, clothing, etc. moving from the most general aspects to the most specific details e.g. Bill, who is in his earty twenties, is quite tall and well-built, with thick black hair and piercing blue eyes. He is usually dressed in jeans and a T-shirt
To describe personality and behaviour, you can support your description with examples of manner and mannerism: e.g. Mark is rather unsociable, usually sitting silently in a comer observing others from a distance.
To describe life, lifestyle and beliefs, you should talk about the person's habits, interests, profession, daily routine, opinions, etc.
e.g. Being both a university student and a part-time assistant In a supermarket, Janet has little free time to go out in the evenings.
If the instructions for the writing task ask you to describe someone related to the present, e.g. 'Describe a person who Is unusual..." you will describe the person using Present tenses. If you are asked to describe sb related to the past, sb who is no longer alive, or sb whom you met some time ago... e.g. "Describe a famous person you met who was not as you expected...'. you will describe the person using Past tenses. The use of descriptive vocabulary, e.g. stunning, slender, etc. and a variety of linking words and structures will make your writing more interesting.
who the person isf when!how you first meti saw him/her
personalityibehaviour (with justificationlexamples)
Hie!lifestyle ¡beliefs Paragraph 5
explanation 1 + justification Paragraph 6
explanation 2 + justification
Final Paragraph comments/feelings about person
2 Read the following composition and (ill in the* missing information in the plan. Look at the highlighted adjective-noun combinations, then close your hooks and try to remember as man) of these as possible. W hat other words can you think of which could be used to describe a person's physical appearance?
Describe a person you know well
When I began working at Hillcresl Nursery School three years ago, I was introduced to Sharon Dunn, the school's headmistress.
Her smart appearance and warm, friendly expression made me like her immediate-t ly. She is a small-boned, smiling woman in her early fifties, with twinkling blue eyes and soft, silver curls. Although she dresses simply she always manages to look elegant.
She is a very fair-minded person who treats everyone at the school with equal respect. Despite dasping lier hands nervously when she is upset, she is actually very calm, which is shown by her ability to keep her temper in the most difficult situations. Her quiet voice and gentle, caring manner make her popular with the children.
Ms Dunn has no children of her own: however, she says tliat she feels like a mother to all of the children in her school. In fact, she has no time for family life, since she dedicates her life to her job. Besides taking care of various administrative tasks ever)' day, ' she always takes time to talk to the teachers and parents. In addition, she often holds meetings with the school's Board of Directors, as well as with staff and parents.
lo my mind, Sharon Dunn is a dedicated professional who is a wonderful role model, not only for the children but tor the teachers, as well.
Introduction first met Ms Dunn at Hillcrest Nursery School headmistress
• Appearance smart; warm, inendly expression
3 Look at the photographs, choose the most
/jf • A description of a person's appearance could include such aspects as height build, age. facial features, expression, hair, clothes, etc. You may describe visual details (e.g. A tall, heavily-built man wearing a black leather jacket...) and/or use words and phrases which describe the general impression created by the person's appearance (e.g. Donna's slender, youthful build makes her look younger than she is, while her face, with its bright smile and friendly expression, is very attractive).
Note that when you describe someone for official purposes e.g. a police report, you emphasise the person's physical appearance, giving the most accurate description possible.
appropriate descriptive words from those suggested, and then write a short description of each person, as in the example.
sparWin^watery/piercing eyes \ sarcastic/condescending/friendly smile broadhooKedbutton nose tair/smooth/swaithy skin bloodshot sunken/protruding eyes
He has a hooked nose, swarthy skin and bloodshot eyes.
, tanned/clean-shaven,'tine-featured face x^flabby/bulgmg'withered biceps /
flowing/silver/curly hair warm/hostile/arrogant expression dimples/pimples/wrinkles
Writing which contains a series of short sentences or the same simple linking words (such as "and") soon becomes boring and repetitive. To avoid this, you should use a wide range of linking words and structures.
She is tall and striking, with long blonde hair.
Relative Clauses who/which/whose
My neighbour, who is slightly eccentric, has dozens of filthy cats. He is a scruffy child whose clothes are torn and dirty. He has a broken nose, which makes him look like a boxer.
She is so beautiful (that) she looks like a film star.
Addition in addition to, as well as/besides, moreover, furthermore, not only ... but also ..., etc. He is very tall, In addition to being very thin. My grandmother has deep wrinkles, as well as thin grey hair. He is not only artistic, but also a successful businessman.
Contrast but/yet/However/Nonetheless/Even so + clause Although/(Even) though/While + clause In spite of/Despite + -ing form/noun/the fact that He is temperamental, but/yet he is a loyal friend. He looks as though he's an old man. However, he is only 35. Although he has a huge, powerful body, he's a very gentle person. In spite of being very busy, she always has time for her children.
4 Join the following sentences by using a variety of the structures shown in the table above, as in the example.
e.g. Kevin Boyce plays basketball for our school team. He is very tall. He is athletic, too. This makes him an excellent player.
Kevin Boyce, who plays basketball for our school team, is not only vary tall but also vary athletic, which makes him an excellent player.
1 The Masai are East African tribespeople. They are tall. They have noble features. They look extremely graceful.
Grace Kelly reached Hollywood stardon in the 1950s. She was famous for her del icate features. She married a prince too The postman is 56. He has thick blacl hair. It has only a few touches of gre> He has smooth skin. This makes hin look younger than he is. Mrs Russell is tiny. Her flat is next t( mine. She has white hair and wrinkles She looks 90 years old. Maurice has black hair. He has a thicl black moustache. He has a dark com plexion.
The policeman's muscular build fillei his large uniform. He had a high, broai forehead and a strong, square jaw These gave him an air of authority.
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