Articles Of How To Prevent Further Distruction Of The Environment

Topic Phrases

... expose the truth - that smoking is a dangerous habit which kills thousands of people every year.

- warn children more effectively about the dangers of smoking, the situation might improve.

-ban all cigarette advertising in order to reverse this disturbing trend.

- place a ban on the sale of cigarettes to under-eighteens, and ensure that this ban is strictly enforced.

- impose heavier taxes on cigarettes, thus making them even more expensive than they already are.

7 In the essay below there are a number of mistakes. Read the model and underline examples of the following:

1 Three misused linking words.

2 An over-generalisation.

3 An irrelevant sentence.

4 A sentence containing over-emotional language.

5 Two sentences written in very informal, colloquial language.

6 Two irrelevant/unclear topic sentences.

Now rewrite the topic sentences so that each is clear and relevant and replace the words/phrases you have underlined with correct alternatives.

Various ecosystems are being systematically destroyed by man. What measures do you think should be taken to prevent turther destruction?

We can scarcely turn on our televisions or pick up a newspaper these days without being confronted with yet another depressing news item about the environment. As the population of many cities increases, more and more land is being converted from its natural state to accommodate homes and factories. The direct result of this is the systematic destruction of different ecosystems all over the world which, in turn, has led to seas becoming polluted with poisons, rivers becoming contaminated by pesticides and the air becoming polluted with fumes from vehicles and industry. While the problems of pollution and habitual destruction are obvious, the solutions are elusive. Moreover, serious attempts to halt the destruction of ecosystems must be made immediately.

As Paul Claudel once said: "Nature is only an immense ruin". Clearly, individuals need to become more aware of the consequences of their actions and should act more responsibly. Only if people do so will the Earth be saved from further destruction and the world become a healthier, safer place to live in.

People should not expect governments to provide all the solutions. Citizens must begin to recycle goods and packaging whenever possible, as well as buy only environmentally friendly products. Nonetheless, domestic food scraps should be recycled; for example, potato peelings and melon rinds can be turned into substances that enrich the soil. By doing this, we can reduce the amount of non-biodegradable waste being dumped at rubbish tips, thus ensuring that materials such as glass and plastic are not left in earth which could be used as farmland in the future.

Despite this, individuals can help protect the earth by using public transport whenever possible. Where such facilities do not exist, sharing lifts is recommended to reduce traffic congestion, noise and vehicle emissions on the roads. The less petrol our societies burn, the better the air quality will be. In addition, if there were fewer cars in circulation, there would be fewer road accidents.

Another possible measure to combat industrial pollution would be the imposition of strict fines on wicked, greedy corporations and unfeeling, ignorant businesses which contaminate land, air or water. To be effective, the fines should be heavy enough to deter potential polluters; if they are too small, they could simply be regarded by industries as "the cost of doing business" and they might be ignored.

Finally, governments should be far more responsible. All governments have the funds and technology to provide solar, wind, geothermal and tidal power. The problem is that many governments couldn't care less and wouldn't lift a finger to help their countries by funding research to develop such sources or to discover new ways to produce energy. If, however, this were to happen, the consequence would be that depletion of finite resources such as oil and coal would be slowed down, or even halted altogether.

To sum up, the earth is suffering as a result of the destruction wreaked upon it by humanity. Don't you think it's time we cleaned up this dreadful mess?

8 Answer the following questions for each of the topics listed below.

a What kind of a discursive essay is this?

b What paragraph plan would you follow?

c What points can you think of to include in your essay?

d Which aspects of the discussion clock would you include?

e Which techniques would you use to write the introductory paragraph and the conclusion?

f Which useful words/phrases would you include in your essay?

1 Road accidents claim far too many lives. What can governments and individuals do to reduce this problem?

2 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of living at home past the age of eighteen.

3 "In today's large cities flats are preferable to houses." Do you agree?

4 "Computers will soon render books obsolete." Discuss.

5 Parents are often unaware of the difficulties and problems their teenage children face and are unable to help them. What could parents and children do to overcome the gulf between them?

6 Discuss the arguments for and against using live animals for scientific experimentation.

7 Many countries are in danger of losing their cultural identity on account of globalisation. Discuss this problem and say what could be done to avoid this.

8 "You can choose your friends but not your relatives." Do you feel that friends arc more important than family?

9 "Capital punishment is never justified." What is your opinion?

10 "Too much money is being spent on space exploration while people are starving on Earth." Discuss.

9 Look at the following topic and then answer the questions below.

Discuss the problems of unemployment and offer possible solutions.

• What has caused the problem?

• What are the consequences?

• Match each of the suggestions (1-3) below with the corresponding result (a-c).

1 Governments to create incentives/ subsidise industries.

2 Better education/training so workers can operate computers, sophisticated machinery, etc.

3 Free sports/recreational centres for unemployed to help people spend their time constructively.

a Reduce crime/social problems connected with idleness/boredom, b Create more positions, limit number of workers made redundant, c People will have proper qualifications for types of jobs available.

• Can you suggest any other solutions to this problem? What would the expected result of each be?

• What paragraph plan would yoO follow to write this essay?

• Which techniques could you use to begin and end your essay?

» What useful expressions could you include?

10 Using your notes and the answers from Exercise 9, write the composition in about 350 words.

UNIT 7 Letlers

MET There are varic //' a) letters of i i various types of letters, such as:

: request; b) letters giving information; c) letters of advice; d) letters / making suggestions/recommendations, e) letters of complaint; f) letters of apology;

g) letters of application; h) letters to the editor/authorities (expressing an opinion and/ or providing solutions/suggestions); i) transactional letters, etc.

A successful letter should consist of:

a) an appropriate greeting: e.g. Dear Ms Crawley, Dear Mr and Mrs Jones, Dear Sir ¡Madam, Dear Tony;

b) an introductory paragraph which clearly states your reason for writing;

c) a main body in which you develop the subject, and deal with the additional objective(s) of the letter if necessary, d) a conclusion in which you summarise the subject; and e) an appropriate ending e.g. Yours faithfully/sincerely + full name, Best Wishes + first name

Style in Letters

The style of the letter varies depending on who it is addressed to . For instance, a letter to someone you do not know requires a formal style, a letter to someone you know but are not intimate with requires a semi-formal style, while a letter to a friend requires an informal style.

Formal letters contain:

• formal greetings and endings;

• formal language i.e. complex sentences (Having spoken to the manager in person, I still feel my requests have not been satisfied.), non-colloquial English (Please keep me informed regarding any further developments.MOl: Ploaoo hoop ma pootod about what's happoning.), frequent use of the passive (A two-week package holiday to the picturesque village of St Martin's is being offered by our agency for only £3,600.), and advanced vocabulary (/ feel it is appropriate to explain to you some of the practices which are enforced throughout all of our branches.);

no abbreviated forms.

Informal letters contain:

• informal greetings and endings;

• informal language and style i.e.idioms {It was a blessing in disguise that I didn't apply for the job as that company is now in deep financial trouble.), phrasal verbs (I'll look you up next time I'm in Brussels.), colloquial English and omission of pronouns (Hope to see you soon!) ;

• abbreviated forms.

Semi-formal letters contain:

• formal greetings (Dear Mr and Mrs Smith);

• informal endings (Best Wishes/Yours + full name);

• a respectful tone, depending on the relationship you have with the recipient of the letter. Also, pronouns should not be omitted and idioms should be carefully used.

Look at the different layouts. Which are used to write a formal, semi-formal or informal letter? Which one would you use to write a letter to a) someone you know but are not on intimate terms with? b) a relative? c) a company manager whose name you know/ don't know? d) the authorities?

\ Dear Margot

\ Dear Margot

Dear Sir/Madam,

Helen Perkins

I Dear Mr Ford,

CaM 1 ^ r. Yours sincerely,

Best Wishes, Alberto Ponti

Dear Sir/Madam,

Helen Perkins

Dear Sirs,

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  • Clorinda
    What solutions can prevent further destruction of earth?
    8 years ago
  • joshua
    What to do overcome land distruction?
    3 years ago
  • ambrogio
    How to avoid distruction?
    2 years ago
  • Janina
    What are the ways to overcome the distruction over to our buildings?
    2 years ago
  • daniela gerber
    How to eliminate distruction?
    1 year ago
  • stefanie
    How can you prevent the distruction of our environment?
    1 year ago

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