a\ jo conclude, traditional values are clearly necessary for the, proper func-■T tioning of society. However, it cannot be - denied that society is evolving, and values should also change with the times If this were to happen, perhaps people would no longer look back nos-

S lalgically to the past and talk about the

"Good old days." bf To sum up, I strongly believe that, what ever changes may occur in society, wi must fight to maintain our traditions sense of right and wrong. As Pope Pai

VI said' "We must see to it that enthus asm for the future does not give rise i contempt for the past."

7 Read the main body of the essay below on the topic: "State benefits should be available to all." Do you agree? Then, read the beginnings and endings and say which of the techniques on p. 56 has been used in each one. Next, list the viewpoints presented and the justifications or examples given for each. Finally, replace the bold type words or phrases with other synonymous ones.


1 A man wakes up and sees well-shod feet rushing by within inches of his face. His filthy sleeping bag is damp, and the sodden cardboard box which shelters him is about to collapse. Yet, he cannot afford a real home and state benefits are not available to him. This situation is not uncommon although, in my opinion, such unfortunate people should all be eligible for financial aid.

2 Have you ever wondered what it must be like to wake up on a cold pavement, knowing that you will have to spend the day wandering from place to place, penniless, and hungry? For thousands of people in the western world this is an everyday experience - although in my opinion, it does not have to be that way if the state administers benefits properly and fairly.

3 George Bernard Shaw once wrote, "The greatest of evils and the worst of crimes is poverty." The question is why the homeless, the disabled and the elderly should be treated like criminals by the state rather than be given the help and services they rightfully deserve. I believe that all people in need should be given help and support by the state.

In the first place, I think it is wrong to deny state benefits to any person in need. It seems to me totally unfair that a homeless person should be denied state benefits simply because he or she has no fixed address. In effect, the homeless person is being punished for being homeless, whereas state benefits would allow that person to find and maintain a home.

In addition, it is not only the homeless who suffer from lack of state aid but the handicapped are also neglected. Although all disabled people are entitled to state benefits, many are unaware of the range and variety of benefits they could be receiving in order to improve the quality of their lives. This is a result of the complexity of the state system and the lack of clear information about benefits. It appears that these people are suffering for the simple reason that the state does not care enough to make information freely available to those who are clearly in need of financial help.

Furthermore, the elderly are another sector of society who suffer both from lack of information and lack of concern. It is often the case that medical benefits are denied simply because a person is not visibly or dramatically ill, whereas in fact this person is in need of additional benefits in order to maintain a reasonable level of health. Such people obviously deserve to receive all the benefits they are entitled to.

There are those who argue, on the other hand, that many people receive state aid although they do not deserve it. It is true that there is such a problem. Certain people take advantage of the system by registering for benefits in more than one country, or claim to have dependents who do not even exist. It is my belief that it is the responsibility of the state to impose tighter controls so that only those who are truly in need of benefits receive them.

A While it cannot be denied that state benefits are sometimes wasted on those who do not deserve them, it is my firm belief that, with proper controls, all those who are truly in need should receive financial help from the state. I believe that the homeless, the disabled and the elderly should all be given the chance to lead productive and healthy lives.

B All in all, I believe that all deserving people should receive state benefits so that they have the chance to lead productive and healthy lives. If you suddenly found yourself out of work and homeless, wouldn't you expect the state to help you get back on your feet again?

C To sum up, it would seem that benefits should be available to all who deserve them, and that clear information should be made available to all who may be in need of help. It is the responsibility of the state to give all its citizens the chance to lead productive and healthy lives.

8 Read the following extracts and the table of "Do's" and "Don'ts". Find an example of each point in the extracts, and write this in the table.

"The mass media have an adverse effect on moral standards

Do you agree?

Newspapers, in one form or another, have been in existence for centuries, their purpose being to spread news. Public radio and television services, on the other hand, have only been available in the UK since 1922 and 1932 respectively, and were introduced with the intention of informing, educating and entertaining. While radio seems to have largely maintained its standards, newspapers and TV have, in my opinion, totally abused their position of power, resulting in a serious decline in moral standards. As Richard Hoggart said, "They are full of a corrupt brightness, of improper appeals and moral evasions

Perhaps the most serious offender is television, as today's broadcasters seem to have completely abandoned the issue of ethics. This is more than apparent in the films and programmes which are intended to entertain, as they bombard the viewer with explicit language, sex and violence. Similarly, the news "informs" us using devastating images of grief, desperation and death. It is often felt that by exposing the public to such graphic depictions, television producers have contributed to our becoming immune to shocking behaviour and events which, in the past, we would have been upset or offended by.

Furthermore, newspapers, especially the tabloids, have come to depend on overly-explicit articles and pictures in order to guarantee sales. It is commonplace nowadays to see, for instance, photographs of celebrities' most private moments or horrific scenes of death occupying the front pages of daily publications. The fact that these images are intended - and generally manage - to sell newspapers displays the craving for sensationalism which exists within society today.

In contrast, it must be admitted that the mass media have a lot to offer in the way of information and entertainment. The news and documentaries can be very informative and educational as long as the material is handled in a responsible manner. The problem is that, because people are willing victims of the media's irresponsibility, the media continue to produce material which is unacceptable by all moral standards.

To conclude, it is clear that the public have a right to know and that producers should be allowed a certain degree of artistic licence, but should we not draw the line somewhere before we lose sight of our principles altogether?


formal style introduction states topic clearly clear topic sentences well-developed paragraphs linking words & phrases generalisation quotation examples


informal style a) colloquial expressions b) short forms introduction fails to state topic clearly unclear/irrelevant topic sentences emotive vocabulary over-generalisation blind use of statistics personal examples use of cliched expressions g I definitely agree with this statement, and there are many reasons why. The media include newspapers, magazines radio and television

All of these play an important role in society because they give us information and entertainment, and of course everybody is interested in them, so that makes them popular.

Every single day on the news, however, you can see horrible, bloody scenes with people screaming and crying. Perhaps there's been a bomb or other disaster. We can see the injured people, and blood and of course it's all real. I find this extremely appalling and disgusting Of course TV

is interesting sometimes, especially documentaries and other real-life programmes. I also like comedies and cartoons but nobody likes beina shocked or horrified.

In my opinion, there are numerous examples. My little brother was watching a horror film one evening, and when he went to bed he had terrible nightmares. And there have been cases of children trying to do things their superheroes do, such as jumping off buildings According to statistics, at least half of the young children have had such problems, which is pretty shocking.

A lot of stars have problems too. Reporters and photographers hound them everywhere and they never have a moments' peace But then everything in life has its price. This of course is bad for moral standards because we shouldn't know-about these people's private lives I think this should be kept under control.

But the worst thing is when they show a private tragedy on TV for everyone to watch. I think this is terrible, and should be stopped.

9 "Cars enslave us rather than liberate us." Do you agree?

Give your opinion with reasons. Then read what these two people believe and mateh the viewpoints they express with their reasons.

To be exact, you can take off for the coast, or any other place, at a moment's notice and if there is no public transport to a place it doesn't matter.

That is to say cars are not only expensive to buy but cost a lot to run. too. So. you have to work more hours if you want to have a car and still be able to live a decent life.

In order to cope with this worry they have to install expensive alarm systems and. to make matters worse, car-owners have to avoid areas of the city where cars get broken into or stolen.

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