Now read the theory and the plan below and listen to the cassette again. Then, using the linking words and phrases below as well as your notes give a one-minute talk on the advantages and disadvantages of genetic engineering.
One major advantage of, A further advantage of, In addition, On the other hand, Moreover, Finally
A "for and against" essay is a formal piece of writing in which a topic is considered from opposing points of view. You should present both sides in a fair way by discussing them objectively and in equal detail. A good essay of this type should consist of:
a) an introductory paragraph in which you clearly state the topic to be discussed, without giving your opinion;
b) a main body in which the points for and against along with your justifications, examples or reasons are presented in separate paragraphs; and c) a closing paragraph in which you state your opinion or give a balanced consideration of the topic.
Note: Opinion words (I think, I believe, In my opinion, etc.) can only be used in the closing paragraph where you give your opinion on the topic.
Points to consider
• Before you start writing your essay you should make a list of the points for and against.
• Each paragraph should start with a topic sentence which summarises the topic of the paragraph.
e.g. In addition, many people feel reading is a relaxing and worthwhile activity.
• Do not use informal style (e.g. short forms, colloquial language, etc.) or strong language to express your opinion (e.g. I know..., etc.). Express your opinion in a non-emotional way (e.g. It seems that, I therefore feel,..., etc.).
• Well-known quotations relevant to the topic you are writing about will make your composition more interesting. For example, if you are writing an essay on education, a quotation you may include is: "Education is a progressive discovery of our own ignorance." (Will Durant)
Note: Although these are "balanced" arguments, if you feel that either the for or against side is stronger and should be supported, this side should be presented in paragraphs 4 & 5, thus leading the reader to your conclusion.
state topic (summary of the topic without giving your opinion)
Paragraphs 2 & 3
arguments for & justifications, examples, and/ reasons
Paragraphs 4 & 5
arguments against & justification, examples, and/or reasons
Final Paragraph balanced consideration/ your opinion directly or indirectly
Read the model below and write down the topic of each paragraph in the outline plan on the right. Underline the linking words. What aspects of the 'Discussion Clock' (page 59) do the points included relate to?
"Censorship is necessary in modern society." Discuss.
Censorship is an issue which frequently generates a great deal of heated debate, with supporters maintaining that it is vital in order to protect society, whilst opponents claim that it is an unjustifiable restriction of public access to information.
Firstly, all countries have secrets which must be safeguarded for reasons of national security. For instance, if an enemy country were to acquire such highly sensitive information, the effects could be catastrophic. Consequently, governments have to have the power to restrict access to information concerning areas such as the armed forces or particular aspects of foreign policy.
Secondly, it is often argued that censorship is necessary to prevent the broadcast and publication of obscene material which is considered offensive or harmful to public morals. Many people feel that, without censorship the public would be constantly subjected to material that the majority would find offensive. For this reason, the government has a duty to impose certain restrictions on the mass media by censoring films and texts which contain explicit scenes of sex, violence or foul language.
In contrast, opponents of censorship point out that when it Is abused by governments, censorship becomes an instrument used to misinform society and maintain power. In order to control the flow of information which reaches the public, repressive regimes try to put constraints on the media, thus denying citizens the right to information owing to the fact that governments believe it may lead them to seek greater freedom.
Furthermore, it is generally felt that mature adults are able to make informed choices about what they watch, read and listen to and should, therefore, be permitted to make their own decisions. For example, some comedians make use of offensive language and taboo subjects in their performances. Critics of censorship argue that the only people who will watch or listen to such material are adults who have made a conscious decision to do so. Thus, it is claimed, it is unjust to censor material like this since it is not forced upon people who may subsequently be offended by it.
All things considered, it can be concluded that a certain degree of censorship is always necessary. The best course of action would be to attempt to achieve a balance between the requirements of the country and the public on the one hand, and individuals' rights on the other.
Summary of the topic
Mam Body -
* Conclusion -
Useful expressions and linking words/phrases
To list points:
Firstly, First of all, In the first place, To begin/start with, Secondly, Thirdly, Finally
To list advantages:
One/Another/A further/An additional (major) advantage of... is ... The main/greatest/first advantage of... is ...
To list disadvantages:
One/Another/ A further/An additional (major) disadvantage/drawback of. The main/greatest/most serious/first disadvantage /drawback of... Another negative aspect of...
To introduce points/arguments for or against:
One (very convincing) point/argument in favour of... / against..., A further common criticism of... / It could be argued that...,
It is often widely generally claimed/suggested argued/maintained/ felt/believed/held that...
some/many/ most people/experts/ scientists/sceptics/ critics claim/suggest/argue/feel that... maintain/believe/point out/agree/hold that...
advocate (+ing/noun)/support the view that. oppose the view that...
are in favour of/against...
of the opinion that/convinced that.
5 Fill in the gaps using words the table.
1 Some people support the
that the wealthier countries o world should support the less c oped countries.
2 One major of public transport is that it can gei crowded during busy periods.
ning the use of cars in the city ce
4 Another negative of 1
ing pets is that veterinary bills c; extremely expensive.
5 It is widely that nu weapons should be banned w wide to eliminate the three nuclear war.
6 A advantage of own mobile phone is that one can co others from almost anywhere.
4 Complete the following sentences without changing the meaning of the sentence before.
1 It is widely maintained that recycling some products reduces the amount of damage we do to the environment.
Most people advocate
2 Some people still oppose the view that mothers can be career women too.
Some people feel
3 One argument against nuclear testing is that it has long-lasting effects on surrounding areas.
Sceptics point out that
4 It is generally held that harsher punishments for criminals would result in a decrease in the crime rate.
Many people support
5 Critics often argue that the use of computers is reducing levels of literacy.
A further common
Useful expressions and linking words/phrases
• To add more points to the same topic:
in addition (to this), furthermore, moreover, besides, apart from, what is more, as well as, not to mention (the fact) that, also, not only ... but also/as well, both ... and, There is another side to the issue/question/argument of...
• To make contrasting points:
on the other hand, however, still, yet, but, nonetheless, nevertheless, even so, it may be said/argued/claimed that,...
others/ oppose this viewpoint many people (strongly) disagree ..., claim/feel/believe this argument is incorrect/misguided although, though, even though, while, whilst, whereas, despite/in spite of (the fact that), regardless of the fact that
Opponents of... argue/believe/claim that... The fact that... contradicts the belief/idea that... While it is true to say that..., in fact... While/Although ..., it cannot be denied that...
6 Join the sentences using the words/phrases given in brackets.
1 Pets can prove to be good companions. They teach children a sense of responsibility, (not only)
2 Many people nowadays decide to open their own business. A slump in the economy has resulted in the closure of many small business, (even though)
3 Computers are time-saving devices. They can do things which people could hardly do before, (apart from)
4 Living in the countryside can be beneficial for your health. Some essentials are not so easily available in the country as in the city, (despite)
5 Voting gives you a voice in the decisions of the government. It gives you a feeling of belonging to a larger community, (not to mention that)
7 Complete the following sentences, then replace the phrases in bold with other similar ones.
1 Regardless of the fact that country life can be much healthier than city life,
2 Efforts have been made to reduce discrimination between men and women; nonetheless,
3 In spite of making some attempts to end wars worldwide,
4 Many people feel that the testing of products on animals is cruel, while
8 Read the items below and say whether the second sentence presents an additional or contrasting point. Then, join the sentences using words/phrases from the table.
1 Alternative medicines treat the symptoms of a disease. Conventional medicines treat the underlying cause of a disorder.
2 Alternative medicine makes use of natural products rather than drugs. Alternative medicines are not tested on animals.
3 Conventional doctors have recognisable and respected qualifications. Conventional treatments are widely available to everyone.
4 People trust conventional treatments because they are tested scientifically. People are often suspicious of alternative methods which sometimes rely on a "trial and error" technique.
5 Alternative treatments cause few or no side-effects. Conventional treatments can cause severe side-effects.
Useful expressions and linking words/phrases
• To introduce examples:
for example, for instance, such as, like, in particular, particularly, especially, This is (clearly) illustrated/shown by the fact that... One/A clear/striking/ typical example of (this)... The fact that shows/illustrates that...
clearly, obviously, it is obvious, naturally, of course, needless to say, indeed
In fact, the fact (of the matter) is, actually, in practice, it is a fact that, in effect
• To make general statements:
as a (general) rule, generally, in general, on the whole, by and large, in most cases
• To make partially correct statements:
to a certain extent/degree, to some extent/degree, in a way/sense, this is partly true (but), to a limited extent, there is some truth in (this), in some cases, up to a point
• To explain/clarify a point:
in other words, that is to say, this/which means that
9 Fill in the gaps using words/phrases from the list. Some words/phrases can be used more than once.
up to a point, especially, indeed, this means, needless to say, in general, in fact, the fact that, obviously, example
1 , people have mixed feelings about the effects tourism has on a country.
2 Most people believe that computers always make life easier, but
the opposite is sometimes true since they often cause problems when they break down.
3 testing products on animals is cruel, but it is difficult to find a suitable alternative.
4 A typical of the benefits of country life is the fact that there is very little pollution from traffic.
5 more and more zoos are closing down shows that fewer people agree with keeping animals in captivity and, therefore, do not want to visit them any longer.
6 Using public transport can be a nuisance,
when buses and trains are late during rush hour periods.
7 Advances in medical science mean that cures have been found for many diseases people live longer nowadays.
8 , most people agree that more effort should be made where the recycling of materials is concerned.
9 More and more women are going back to work after the birth of their children and they have to find someone to look after the children during the day.
rf^ Useful Language and ' linking words/phrases
To express cause: owing to, due to ( fact that), on account of, on the groi that, given that, because, as, since
To express effect: therefore, thus, as result/consequence, consequently, for this reason, if... were to happen the effect/ result would be ...
To express intention: to, so as to, in order to, so that, with the intention c (+ -ing)
10 Join the sentences using the lii words in the list below.
due to, in addition to, on the grounds. therefore, with the intention of
1 The government has launched a paign to promote new business rural areas. They hope to draw p away from the large urban centres
2 Television is a highly entertE medium. It can also be an exc educational tool.
3 Freedom of expression is one of : basic, inalienable rights. People s be allowed to publish books cont; all their beliefs and ideas.
4 Consumerism is becoming more more a part of modern societies. 1 because of advertising and the media.
5 Many people object to smoking. 1 because passive smoking cai extremely harmful to one's health.
Useful expressions and linking words/phrases
Conclusion expressing balanced considerations/opinion indirectly
In conclusion, On balance, All things considered, Taking everything into account/consideration, To conclude, To sum up, All in all, Finally/Lastly, it can/must be said/claimed that... it seems/appears that... it would seem that...
it is likely/unlikely/possible/foreseeable that.
it is clear/obvious that...
there is no/little doubt that...
the best course of action would be to ...
achieving a balance between ... would be it is true to say that...
although it must be said that...
it may be concluded/said that...
All things considered, the obvious conclusion to be drawn is that.../ There is no absolute answer to the question of.., In the light of this evidence, it is clear/obvious/etc that...
In conclusion, All in all, To sum up, it is clear/apparent plain/obvious evident from the above foregoing evidence points arguments
In conclusion, On balance, All things considered, Taking everything into account/consideration, To conclude, To sum up, All in all, it is my belief/opinion that... I (firmly) believe/feel/think that. I am convinced that... I am inclined to believe that.. I (do not) agree that/with ...
Taking everything into account, I therefore conclude/feel/believe (that) For the above-mentioned reasons, therefore, I (firmly) believe that...
11 Replace the phrases in bold with other similar ones.
1 All things considered, I believe that corporal punishment should not be reintroduced into our schools as it is a cruel method of disciplining students.
2 Lastly, it may be concluded that freedom of speech is a basic right of every individual, regardless of race or creed.
3 To conclude, I am convinced that all the governments of the world should embark immediately on a joint policy of total disarmament.
4 To conclude, it is clear that in the light of the many miscarriages of justice in the past, capital punishment is not ethical or humane, and should be abandoned entirely.
5 In conclusion, it is my opinion that school uniforms are an unfortunate necessity and therefore should not be abolished.
• A "for and against" essay can end in a balanced consideration in which you restate that there are points for and against the topic using appropriate expressions from the table.
• Alternatively, it can end by expressing an opinion, in which case you state, directly or indirectly, that you are either in favour of or against the topic, using expressions from the table.
12 Read the conclusions below and say whether they express a balanced consideration, or the writer's opinion directly/indirectly.
1 To conclude, although it must be said that a sense of responsibility is one of the most important qualities which can be instilled in young people, it should not be forgotten that there are other, equally important qualities.
2 For the above-mentioned reasons, therefore, I firmly believe that if people are taught a keen sense of responsibility towards themselves and others, then they will have the best possible start in life. The way I see it, taking full responsibility for one's own actions is central to leading an honest life.
3 To sum up, it would seem that, once young people know how to take responsibility for their actions, they are better equipped to learn about life. While there are other important qualities, a highly-developed sense of responsibility provides the ideal foundation for personal development.
4 On balance, it seems that a sense of responsibility has a role to play in a young person's development. Nevertheless, when placed alongside other human qualities, such as honesty and integrity, it is by no means the most useful.
13 Read the main body of the for and against essay below on the topic: "Discuss the view that advertising promotes excessive consumerism." Then read the beginnings and endings and say which of the techniques on p. 56 has been used in each one. Finally, replace the bold type words or phrases in the main body with ones similar in meaning.
1 Whether it is on TV, radio or hoardings at the side of the road, advertisements have become a part of our lives, advertising simply a means of informing the public or does it encourage consumers to purchase products they do r really need?
2 Advertising is a powerful and persuasive medium. You may feel this is an intrusion in your daily life, and resent tl pressure on you to spend money. Others, however, enjoy the variety which this highly creative industry brings to evei day life.
3 Advertising is an effective way of selling new products, and many people argue that its effectiveness brainwashes into unnecessary spending. Others, however, disagree. As Jeremy Tunstall says, "Advertising can't sell any product: can only help to sell a product the people want to buy."
One of the main arguments for advertising is that it generates wealth for a country. That is to say, taxes paid on goods sold, help governments to pay for essential services such as education and health care. Moreover, the number of jobs created for producing, marketing and servicing these goods helps to reduce the unemployment problem, which is also a great advantage for a country's economy.
What is more, advertising raises money for a huge number of sporting events and artistic performances which would otherwise not be held. Without sponsorship from companies who advertise their products, these events would disappear due to lack of funding. In other words, although consumerism is promoted through advertising, it is beneficial to both the consumer and society.
On the other hand, advertisements can cause people to be dissatisfied with what they already have, and make them want more. Being exposec again and again to products which one cannot afforc produces frustration and dissatisfaction. Further more, not all parents are in a position to afford th< goods which their children see advertised and wan to possess. This often leads to feelings of inadequa cy, especially among the less well-off.
In addition to this, advertising creates materialisn and causes people to place too much importance or material goods. The fact that people are prepared tc work long hours, or even turn to crime in order to gair the goods on offer, shows that advertising persuade; people to go to great lengths to keep the same stan dard of living as those they see around them. It is £ fact, though, that neither crime nor the stress causec by overwork can benefit society.
A To sum up, it is true to say that advertising does provide some benefits. However, do you not agree that tl drawbacks of a greedy, materialistic society far outweigh the advantages, and we need to be careful that we do n lose sight of what is most important - a spirit of co-operation rather than competition?
B To conclude, it must be said that, while advertising may create jealousy and inequality in society, without it v would lose a valuable source of revenue which is used for the benefit of the majority. What would our lives be lil without advertisements?
C In conclusion, I believe that advertising exists to generate wealth by encouraging people to spend unnecessarily, fosters greed and breeds dissatisfaction while distracting us from focusing on more vital things. As Marion Harper said, "Advertising is found in societies which have passed the point of satisfying the basic animal needs."
14 Read the four topic sentences below and match each with the corresponding paragraph. Does each topic sentence adequately summarise the argument it presents? What would a suitable introduction and conclusion be for this essay?
"living in a foreign country cannot be better than living in your own."
a Furthermore, people who move to a foreign country may be regarded with suspicion and treated unfairly.
b On the other hand, living abroad can be a way to escape a variety of problems presented in one's country of birth.
c One argument in favour of .staying in one's native country is that the problems ot adaptmg to a new way of life cannot always be overcome d Finally, it may be said that by living in a foreign country, people are able to establish a greater understanding between nations.
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What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.