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The fact of the matter is that, even in cases where the language is the same, there are other changes, such as cultural differences, which an outsider might find difficult to adjust to. Even the weather can force some people to return to their country of origin. For example, take an Inuit and an Amazonian Indian. They would almost certainly find it impossible to adapt to the extreme climates of each other's native homes.

In countries with a large number of immigrants there are often social problems, and immigrants stand out as being "different" and even inferior. As a consequence, the host country may react in a variety of ways,from open hostility and racism to depriving the immigrants of the right to equal pay.

For example, war, political or religious intolerance, and natural catastrophes are among the reasons for people seeking a new home in a foreign land. In such cases, people are often able to start a new life abroad with greater freedom and a higher standard of living.

That is to say, by working and living among foreigners, some of the barriers between countries can be broken down, helping to create a more peaceful world. Needless to say, better diplomatic relations would be of benefit to all.

15 Which of the following are arguments in favour and which are arguments against the topic: "School plays a more important role than the family in shaping one's personality." Discuss. Suggest examples/justification for each argument. Finally, write the composition in about 350 words.

1 Moreover, so much of the school day is devoted to competition and preparation for examinations that there is little time left for personality development.

2 On the other hand, most children have a closer relationship with their parents than with their teachers.

3 An additional argument in support of school is that young people arc exposed to a wide variety of subjects.

4 One point in favour of the role of schools is that it is at school where children first learn to socialise.

5 Furthermore, children usually spend five years of their lives at home before they even go to school.

6 What is more, the average child spends as many as eight hours a day in school.

PLANNING & ORGANISATION

There is an alternative paragraph plan you may use when writing for and against essays. When following this plan you present both an argument in favour and the opposing viewpoint in the same paragraph.

In such essays the arguments for and against must be equal in number For the introduction and conclusion you should use the techniques suggested on p. 56.

16 "Greater freedom does not necessarily lead to greater happinessDiscuss.

Read the model and say which arguments have been presented in each paragraph. Do the topic sentences clearly summarise the content of each paragraph? Finally, underline all the useful expressions and linking words or phrases and replace them with ones similar in meaning.

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