27 Replace the word "said" in the following passage with more descriptive reporting verbs from the list below, and add the missing punctuation. The words which are underlined are in Direct Speech.
exclaimed, laughed, shouted, snapped, stammered, teased, wailed, yelled go said the skydiving instructor the first student jumped out of the plane go the instructor said to the next student in line i cant do it the terrified novice said im scared look if you dont jump now you'll never be allowed to try again the instructor said over the noise of the aeroplane but but the student said i have a wife and two children come on its not dangerous just get a hold of yourself and remember what youve learned the nervous student looked out the plane door and saw the green fields below ok ill do it he said with determination and jumped the parachute opened properly and he floated gently towards the ground i bet you were terrified said his wife when he touched down no he said i cant wait to do it again
28 Look at the cartoon strip below a write a brief descriptive paragra about each picture, as in the exam]
Narrative sequence does not always follow the chronological sequence of events. You may choose to begin with a particular (usually dramatic) event, and then use flashback narration to describe the events up to this point (usually in Past Perfect), before continuing with the rest of the story.
Some narrative writing tasks tell you to begin your story with a given sentence which often suggests clearly that another important event has already taken place; in such cases you must use flashback narration.
29 Read the story below and underline the time words/phrases, then put the verbs in brackets into the correct tenses.
Write a story beginning with the words: "He sat down> unable to believe what had happened."
He sat down, unable to believe what had happened. Angus (1)
(hear) the metal door clang shut and the policeman trudging away down the corridor and, gazing around at the bare brick wall of the narrow cell, he
(2) (become) aware of the stale, sour smell of the rough blanket covering the crude bed on which he (3) (sit).
A few hours earlier, Angus had been a carefree tourist looking forward to an exotic holiday as he stepped out of a taxi in front of his hotel. Then, suddenly, events (4) (take) a nightmarish twist. Three policemen had rushed up, waving guns and shouting at him in a language he couldn't understand before clamping handcuffs on his wrists. After bundling him into a battered police car, they had raced to the police station. Nobody could speak a word of
English, it seemed, and Angus (5) (be pushed) into a cell without knowing what crime they thought he (6) (commit).
Now, through the bars of the tiny window in his cell, Angus watched the evening sky grow dark, until the door of the cell was flung open. Two burly policemen seized his arms and (7) (lead) him to a small room, bare except for a wooden table with a telephone on it. A tall, swarthy man in a neat uniform and shiny boots entered the room, and the other policemen
(8 ) (spring) to attention. The man, obviously a senior officer,
(9 ) (speak) to Angus in broken English; but Angus' relief at finding someone he could understand turned to dismay when he realised what the man (10) (say). The officer was accusing him of a robbery which (11) (carry out) the previous week.
"But that's ridiculous!" Angus spluttered. "I (12) (arrive) in the country today - I've never been here before in my life!"
At that moment, the telephone rang, and the officer held a long conversation.
Finally he (13) (put) the phone down and muttered,
"Mistake ... sorry ... another man ... ," then showed Angus to the door and explained that he was free to leave.
Angus stepped out into the warm night air, still shaken by the terrifying experience but immensely thankful that it was over. He knew he would feel angry later at the way he (14) (be treated) - but he hoped that by that time he (15) (be) on an aeroplane, flying home. He was no longer in the mood for a holiday.
30 Complete the list of events below the order in which they appear in story. Then number the events chronological order and say wh part of the story uses flashback n ration. Finally, tell the story brieflj your own words without using fla back narration.
Angus sits in a cell in a police static
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