Linking Cause And Effect

She is open and friendly. (Cause) She is popular. (Effect)

because/as/since owing to/due to (+ -ing/noun/the fact that)...

As a result/consequence of A/the result of... is ; as a result,...

She is popular because she is open and friendly.

She is popular due to being/due to the fact that she is open and friendly.

A result of her being open Is that she is popular..

..., so ... therefore/for this reason ... The reason (that/why) ... is...

She is open and friendly, so she is popular.

She Is open and friendly, therefore she is popular.

The reason she is popular Is that she is open and friendly.

5 All the sentences below use the simple linking word "because". Look at the table above, then rewrite each of the sentences using the linking word or phrase in bold type.

e.g. People often find him offensive because he says exactly what he thinks.

A result of his saying exactly what he thinks is that people often find him offensive.

1 People trust Paul because he is so honest. Since...

2 He is very successful because he works extremely hard. The reason ...

3 Joan is an interesting person because she has lived in exotic places and has had so many strange experiences. ...; as a result,...

4 Don comes across as being inquisitive because he tends to ask people a lot of questions. ..., so ...

5 I dislike her because she is vain and self-centred. ... due to ...

impressions, Opinions and Reactions

J I think/feel/etc (that) / As far as I'm concerned

It seems to me that To me/To my mind In my opinion/view/eyes sb seems/appears to be ... sb strikes people/comes across as (being)... sb gives the impression of being .../the impression that...

I/people/etc find/consider sb to be ,

I think of/see/regard sb as being ...

6 Using the expressions in brackets, write a complete sentence from each of the following 'skeleton' sentences, as in the example.

e.g. Graham / sometimes / be insincere / result / try / flatter / everyone (come across) Graham sometimes comes across as bang insincere, as a result of trying to flatter everyone.

He has / habit / speak with / mouth full / which I / be / disgusting (find) Sarah / people / be / immature / since / often giggle / when someone / speak / her (strike)

Owing / fact / David / never pay / anything, he / be / mean (impression) As / he / not return things / he borrow / he / be / dishonest (opinion) Since my sister often forget / where she put / things, she / be / absent-minded (appear)

//f Compoi

Compound Adjectives j Compound adjectives are formed with:

a) present participles: a quick-acting officer, a hard-working doctor b) past participles: a stylishly-dressed woman, an open-hearted young man, a narrow-minded politician, a widely-known football player c) cardinal numbers + nouns: a three-year-old boy, a six-foot tall man d) well, badly, ill, poorly + past participle: a well-intentioned friend, an ill-mannered actress

7 Make compound adjectives to describe the following:

1 A baby who is crying constantly.

2 A speaker who has prepared thoroughly.

3 Students who are organised well.

4 A girl who has curly hair.

5 A boy who has brown eyes.

6 A basketball player who is 42 years old.

7 An artist who is dressed in funny clothes.

8 A child-minder who has been specially trained.

9 A man who has a short temper.

10 A man with one leg.

11 A dentist who has gentle manners.


J In formal writing, present and past participles can be used to replace clauses as in the following examples.

She is so rich that she can buy anything she wants.

Beingsorich, shecmbuyanythingshewants. She was so rich that she could buy anything she wanted. Having been so rich, she could buy anything she wanted. When he is seen from a distance, he resembles Paul Newman. Seen from a distance, he resembles Paul Newman

Monica, who was dressed entirely in red, entered the room.

Dressed entirely in red, Monica entered the room

8 Rewrite the following sentences using participles.

1 Oliver, who was covered in dust, climbed down the ladder.

2 Veronica, who was tired out, could not go on with the journey.

3 Richard is so rude that he has no friends.

4 She is so intelligent that she can speak six languages.

5 Frank is so absent-minded that he always forgets his car keys.

6 Susan, who was laughing hysterically, couldn't speak.

7 Paul, who was walking on crutches, left the room slowly.

8 Louise is so patient that she is cut out to be a teacher.

9 The following text describes twin brothers. Read it, circle the words oi phrases describing personality and behaviour, and underline the justifications or examples given.

Describe two people who are very different, despite their apparent similarity

Jason and Jonathan are identical twin brothers, who are in the same year at school as I am. Physically, they are indistinguishable; they are like "two peas in a pod", as the saying goes. They have the same short blond hair and fine features, and they tend to dress in the same casual style. When you get to know them, however, it soon becomes clear that their personalities are completely different.

Jason is very outgoing, assertive and ambitious — the sort of person who might run a large corporation. An example of this is the fact that he is already the president of the school debating society. Although people tend to find him rather pompous and conceited, to me he simply seems full of confidence. For instance, he is much more likely to say "1 can do it" than "I'm the best". It is true that he comes across as stubborn, though, due to his habit of refusing to admit he is wrong in any disagreement.

Jonathan, on the other hand, is more of an introvert. He very rarely socialises, preferring to spend his time on his own. He is a dreamer who can spend hours staring at the clouds. As a result, he sometimes gives the impression of being lazy, while a few people even regard him as slow-witted. On better acquaintance, however, he turns out to be not only enthusiastic and energetic, but also deeply caring which is shown by his tireless work on behalf of various charities.

10 Use the adjectives listed below to complete the following sentences describing character as in the example:

childish, cruel, dishonest, friendly, lazy, mean, moody, rude, shy, stubborn, tactless

Then choose from the list below the adjective which has a meaning almost the same as the word you have just used. Write each adjective next to its synonym.

blunt, deceitful, idle, immature,insolent, miserly, obstinate, timid, sociable, spiteful, temperamental e.g. Maria is a friendly/sociable girl who loves meeting people and gels on well with everyone.

1 A good example of Roger's behaviour was the time that he refused to finish a game of chess because he was losing.

2 Andrew is so that he does nothing all day except sit and watch television.

3 Sandra is a rather girl who enjoys upsetting people and getting them into trouble.

4 Gerald tends to be a(n) person;

it's difficult to believe what he says or to trust him.

5 Speaking to strangers is terrifying for Elaine because she is so

6 Melissa tends to be and often upsets people by saying what she thinks without considering their feelings.

7 My brother is very ; he can suddenly change from being perfectly charming to angry or miserable.

8 Mr Purvis is a rather old man who refuses to change his mind once he has reached a decision about something.

9 The way that he shouts at his teachers is just one example of his


10 I think Carol is because she only spends money when she absolutely has to.

11 B Read the table, then listen to the cassette and complete the missing information. Using the information in the table and the linking words in the list, compare Anthony and June.

Similarities: also, too, as well as

Differences: however, on the other hand, whereas, while, but, although e.g. in some ways, Anthony and June are very similar. For example, they are both fashionable ... However, ...

: ' _________________________________J L_„, ,,._,__,

Appearance: fashionable


Personality self-confident, not outgoing,

& Behaviour: sensitive enjoys seems


Manner and Mannerisms

12 Complete each of the following sentences with the set of character words which best matches the manner/mannerisms described.

a arrogant, smug and condescending b sensitive, generous and caring c energetic, outgoing and confident d distant, absent-minded and impolite

1 William comes across as

because he holds his head up high, speaks in a loud, clear voice and looks at people with a steady gaze.

2 Most people regard him as

, on account of his sarcastic tone of voice and sneering expression.

3 The reason Lydia seems ,

is that she often looks away in the middle of a conversation and sometimes doesn't answer when she is spoken to.

4 Phillip strikes me as

since he always realises when someone is upset or worried and offers them comfort, advice and practical help.

13 Read the following descriptions and fill in each blank with a "character" word from the list below. Then rewrite each description in one sentence as in the example. Use as many different linking techniques as possible.

aggressive, impatient, insincere, nervous, timid, vain e.g. Kevin bites his nails. He jumps at loud noises. He is nervous As well as biting his nails, Kevin, who is a very nervous person jumps at loud noises.

1 Cathy spends hours doing her make-up. She is always looking at herself in the mirror. She is

2 Jerry blushes easily. He looks at the floor when he is talking to people. He's very

3 Gordon shouts at people a lot. He also clenches his fists whenever he gets angry. He is

4 Paula flatters people she dislikes. She pretends to agree with them, even if she's of a different opinion. She's

5 Roberta taps her foot if she has to wait. She sighs if things don't happen quickly. She's

/rl 9 Inadesc


j- w .,, j description of a person you could include information that relates to / their life, lifestyle and beliefs. You may refer to factual details such as profession, qualifications, family, etc e.g. He is an eminent scientist who is famous for his research in genetics, or aspects such as daily routine, hobbies, interests, achievements, beliefs, ambitions, future prospects, etc. e.g. George is working hard because he wants to be promoted.

• Information about life, lifestyle and beliefs gives the reader a clearer idea of what the person is and does, and often also suggests what the person's character is like.

e.g. Andrew's ambition is to climb Mt Everest = athletic, adventurous

14 Read the descriptions of three people's lifestyles and beliefs and try to guess what each person does. Which aspects of their life, lifestyle and beliefs do they mention? Now write a similar paragraph about a teacher or a reporter.

Ann has a very unpredictable lifestyle because she doesn't have a regular job. When she has a part, however, she tends to get / up late as she works until late in the evenings. Then, she 1 goes to the gym because it's important/or her to be healthy.1 After that Ann learns her lines or attends extra rehearsals. She goes to work at about six o'clock. Ann's profession enables her to fulfil one of her dreams — to travel. \ She tries to keep an optimistic approach to life x, as you never know what the future holds.

-""* Steve has a very busy lifestyle — getting up at five thirty, working out in the gym and then going straight to" work. He often has working breakfasts and lunches and meetings to attend that go on until the early hours. Steve also has to travel a lot, so he isn't able to spend much time with his family and friends, although he tries to keep his weekends free. He believes in hard work and that the key tOj success lies in honesty and determination. His recent promotion gives him reason to hope that he will be a senior partner of the firm one day.

Claire's life is pretty much the same from day to day. On weekdays / she gets up at seven, wakes up her teenaged sons /sees them off to school. Then she starts the housework, shop-i ping and so on. She spends a lot of time working in the garden, which she really enjoys. Claire always tries to arrange something specialfor the weekends — a drive in the country \ with the whole family, for instance. She believes that \ taking care of her family is a job in itself and one that she takes great pride in. _____

15 Read the short extract below, and s which aspects of the person's life a lifestyle the paragraph deals with.

Moira's career as a respected paintt keeps her busy from dawn to dusl

Fortunately she loves meeting nei people, so she can combine her intei ests with her career. When she is nc attending exhibitions and gallery open ings she leads a very disciplined life

She paints from 6 o'clock in the morn ing until 4 o'clock in the afternoon. She usually spends the early evenings with her husband and two children. Het ambition is to have a one-woman-show in an important London gallery — and her dream is to own an art gailery one day.

16 U You will hear two people talki about a successful writer. Read t table, then listen to the cassette a fdl in the missing information. Usi the notes, first say then write description of Emma's life a lifestyle similar to the one in Ex. If

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  • donnamira
    What is the compound adjectives in : a basketball player who is 42 years old?
    3 years ago

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