Approaching The Central Square You Can Hear The Hum Of Laughter And Voices Along With The Clinking F Glasses

ParticipIc

/ Short senteni / may be joined

Participles & Relative Clauses

Short sentences with the same subject may be jcxned with participles (~ing/ ~ed) or relative pronouns (who/which'whose). The cottage stands at the top of a cliff. It faces out to sea.

The cottage, which stands at the top of a cliff, faces out to sea. The cottage, standing at the top of a cliff, faces out to sea. The farmhouse was built in 1850. It is surrounded by fields.

The farmhouse, [which was] built in 1850, is surrounded by fields.

The participial clause is often put at the beginning of the sentence:

Standing at the top of a cliff, the cottage faces out to sea. Built in 1850, the farmhouse is surrounded by fields.

Note how the meaning of the sentence changes when two sentences with different subjects are joined with a participle.

(0Tourists walk through the streets. • Noises and smells greet them. (D Walking through the streets, <2> noises and smells greet the tourists.

This means that the noises and smells are walking! Instead, you must keep the same subject for both clauses, or use time words such as "while": Walking through the streets, tourists are greeted by noises and smells. While the tourists walk through the streets, noises and smeHs greet them.

1 The castle dominates the skyline. It is built of local stone.

2 The museum was opened in I939. It is visited by thousands of people every day.

3 The temple is surrounded by trees. It is difficult to see from a distance.

4 Greater London covers 610 square miles. It is the largest city in Britain.

5 The monument was erected in 1919. It is a memorial to those who died in World War I.

5 Link the sentences below starting each sentence with the correct form of the word(s) in bold.

6 Correct the following sentences as in the example.

e.g. Sinking behind the mountain, I watched the sun fill the sky with red. (WRONG) Sinking behind the mountain, the sun filled the sky with red (CORRECT)

OR As I watched the sun sinking behind the mountain, it filled the sky with red. (CORRECT)

1 Stretching into the distance, we were amazed by the length of the queue.

2 Squeezing your way onto the packed bus. the other passengers press even closer together to make room for you.

3 Shuffling towards the supermarket's busy tills, heavy baskets hang from the shoppers' tired arms.

4 Standing squashed among the screaming fans, the roar of the enormous crowd was deafening.

jjÊf Descrip /f* restaurar

Descriptions of places often include subjects such as a popular restaurant, a busy market, etc. In a description of this sort, you should / describe both the place and the activity (people, cars, commotion, etc). You may describe details relating to the senses (sight, hearing, smell, touch and taste) to suggest mood and atmosphere (e.g. The bazaar is a riot of exotic smells, dazzling colours and a deafening babble of voices ...)■ • In order to describe a human scene you will need to use a variety of words and phrases relating to crowds (e.g. busy, crowded, bustling, etc) and activity (e.g. customers queue up. passengers ry§h to the train, etc)

7 Read the following descriptions, underline the phrases which refer to the senses and identify each sense. What tenses are used in each description? Why?

A The market buzzes with the sound of women's voices, while the smells of fresh fish vegetables and spices (ill the hot humid air Crowds of shoppers jostle each other as they squeeze past the displays of goods, voices grow louder as the people haggle over prices, and the clang of metal bowls and boxes rings through the market

B A laint smell of crushed grass wafted up from the court as the hot sun beat down on the crowd watching the players. The silence was punctuated by the mythmic sound of the tennis ball and the muted gasps of the spectators; then, suddenly, the crowd surged to their feet with a roar.

8 Identify the sense(s) referred to in each of the phrases below. Then look at the two photographs and decide which each phrase describes. Some phrases may apply to both photographs.

hot. golden sand touch; sight - B

hum of laughter and voices clinking glasses colourful sails strong odour of fish mouth-watenng plates of food cries of seagulls warm sun on white buildings splash of breaking waves salty water

9 Now read this description of photograph A and use the notes above with further details of your own to write a similar description of photograph B.

Approaching the central square, you could hear the hum of laughter and voices, along with the clinking of glasses from the outdoor cafes and restaurants. There was a friendly, relaxed atmosphere as the tourists enjoyed their midday meal. Busy waiters bustled to and fro carrying mouth-watering plates of food, against a picturesque background of bright sun shining on the white buildings.

13 Using the text in Ex. 12 as a model and your notes from Ex. 11, write a description of Nelson's Column, in about 200 words.

12 Look at the brief description below. What is the topic of each paragraph? Circle the location verbs used in the description and underline the words' phrases used to express impression,' opinion.

The construction of the monument on Mount Rushmore began in 1927 and finished in 1941. The memorial, which attracts over two million tourists every year, commemorates four former presidents of the USA and consists of four heads carved out of granite, each standing sixty feet high.

Situated in the Black Hills of South Dakota, the memorial stands out from the mountainside which rises high above the surrounding farmland, and can be clearly seen from a far distance.

To Americans, the spectacle of these massive heads is a powerful reminder of their country's historic glories and achievements, while foreign tourists are struck by the strange sight of these dignified faces lending a human form to the bare mountain scenery.

10 In the skeleton sentences below, the word underlined is the main verb of the sentence. Write each as a complete sentence as in the example.

e.g. Stand / top I hill I massive fortress j dominate / city

Standing at the top of the HH. the massive fortress dominates the city.

1 Palm trees I sway I gentle evening breeze / frame / sun / set / horizon.

2 Stand / top / cliffs / you can / hear / waves / crash I rocks below.

3 Line / cobbled street / be / row / terraced houses / design / John Wood.

4 Surround / mountains / all sides / city I look I as if / be in / enormous bowl.

Mk When de

When describing a monument, you should include factual information (age, size, reason built, etc), a description of the surrounding area and comments/feelings. Do not include information about sights, facilities or activities.

11 BB You will hear part of a TV documentan describing Nelson's Column. Listen and complete the notes below. Then, looking at your notes, describe the monument.

13 Using the text in Ex. 12 as a model and your notes from Ex. 11, write a description of Nelson's Column, in about 200 words.

Factual Information

• Size: the column stands

metres high

• Reason: commemorate

Nelson's at the

Battle of Trafalgar

Surroundings

• the column stands at the centre of

Trafalgar Square in the heart of

• the square is the site of a beautiful the

National and other impressive buildings

• at street level the column is flanked by four lions

Comments/Feelings

• the monument towers above the

London as a reminder of grander days in

Britain's

when this once-great nation ruled the seas

14 Bl You will hear two friends talking about a particular place. Read the questions, then listen to the cassette and answer them. looking at your answers, talk about the place, then write a description of it.

1 What place are they talking about?

5 How many rooms are there?

6 How does he feel about the place?

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