Final Paragraph summarise your opinion

3 Look at the essay topics below, and say whether each topic asks for a "for and against" essay, an opinion essay or an essay suggesting solutions to problems. Then, choose two of the topics and make a list of the points you would include in an essay on each topic.

1 "Animals should be treated with the same respect as humans." Do you agree with this view?

2 "The generation gap is one which cannot be bridged." Discuss.

3 Do you believe that equality for women means that women should also do such things as military service?

4 "One language spoken worldwide would lead to better international relations." Discuss.

5 Genetic engineering poses a number of worrying problems, both moral and practical. Discuss some of these problems and suggest what could be done to overcome them.

6 "Celebrities should be allowed to keep their private lives private, without the invasion of the media." Discuss.

7 "Fear and ignorance are the root causes of racial hatred." Discuss this statement and offer some possible solutions to the problem of racial prejudice.

8 "The motion picture industryis threatening to destroy culture and tradition." Do you agree?

9 "Too much money is spent on sport when it could be used to help the poor." What are your views on this issue?

10 What are the advantages and disadvantages of our ever-increasing use of computer technology?

Formal style

Discursive essays are written in formal style. This means you should use: / passive voice, impersonal constructions

(e.g. It Is argued that...; It Is a common belief that...) / a range of advanced vocabulary (verbs, adjectives, abstract nouns, etc)

(e.g. heated debate concerning the controversial Issue...) / formal linking words/phrases (e.g. furthermore, however, nonetheless) / complex sentences with a variety of links, dependent clauses, etc (e.g. Although It Is widely accepted that compulsory military service, which provides an army with abundant manpower, is beneficial to a country's ability to defend Itself, closer analysis of military efficiency suggests that It is advanced weaponry which plays a crucial role In...) / inversion, especially in conditionals

(e.g. Were this true, we would...; Never has this been more obvious...)

You should not use:

X short forms (e.g. I'm, It's) except when these are part of a quotation X colloquial expressions, phrasal verbs, idioms

(e.g. lots of, put up with, be over the moon about...) X simplistic vocabulary (e.g. Experts say they think this is bad ) X a series of short sentences (e.g. Many people think so. They are wrong.) X simple linking words (e.g. and, but, SO) except for variety

4 Read the following excerpts and find examples of each of the features of formal and informal style listed in the table above.

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