Results

a feel more relaxed b clear your mind c see things differently d deal with problems individually

A useful suggestion ... would he to... Another solution is to... The problem could be solved by... If you were to...

A useful suggestion for anyone suffering from stress would be to talk to friends about their problems This would help them to see things differently.

This would help you to... The effect of this would be... As a result, you would ... You would Iw able to ...

An essay discussing problems and suggesting solutions is a formal piece of writing. You should state the problem and its causes clearly, then present your suggestions and the expected results or consequences these might have. A successful essay of this type should consist of:

a) an introductory paragraph in which you clearly state the problem, what has caused it, and the consequences;

b) a main body in which you present several suggested solutions, each in a separate paragraph together with its consequences/results; and c) a conclusion in which you summarise your opinion.

Points to consider

Each paragraph should start with a topic sentence which summarises what the paragraph is about.

Appropriate linking words and phrases should be used to show the connection between paragraphs as well as to link sentences within a paragraph. Use the techniques shown on p. 56 to begin and end your essay.

Useful Language

To express cause: since/because in view of/because of/owing to/due to (the fact that) The reason that .../why .../for... is that...

To express effect: thus/therefore/so/consequently, as a result'consequence. the result of... would be ..., would result in ...

To express purpose: so that so as/in order (not) to with the purpose of/intention of (+ ing)

To express possibility/probability: It can/could/may/might . It is possible, probable/

(un)likely.'foreseeable,1 certain that is (un)likely to/bound to/certain to/possible/

probable The likelihood/possibility/probability of (-ing/noun) is a i

Introduction

Paragraph 1

state the problem and its cause(s)/consequence(s)

Main Body

Paragraph 2

suggestion 1 & result Paragraph 3 suggestion 2 & result Paragraph 4 suggestion 3 & result Paragraph 5 suggestion 4 & result*

Conclusion

Final Paragraph summarise your opinion

* You may include more suggestions, and thus more paragraphs in the mam body.

2 Read the model below and complete the paragraph plan on the right. Then identity which aspects of the Discussion Clock (p. 59) have been mentioned. Finally, underline the linkinu words,phrases and replace „ Introduction -them with synonymous ones. stflte probjem refls0ns flnd consequences

'What could be done to improve the lives of the elderly?"

Conclusion -

For many elderly people the latter part of their life is not a time to relax and enjoy retirement, but rather a difficult and unhappy period, owing to financial worries, failing health and loneliness. As life expectancy increases, the average person lives well beyond the age of retirement. As a result the elderly make up an ever-increasing percentage of society, which makes it more important than ever for a real effort to be made in improving the lives of senior citizens.

One way to deal with the situation __________________________

would be to ensure that the elderly have enough money on which to live.

Obviously, when a person stops working, they still require a source of income to cover their basic needs such as food, accommodation and heating. A clear solution to the problem is tor the government to make sure that the state pension is adequate tor these needs. Furthermore, free financial advice should be made available to retired people so that the stress of worrying about money could be reduced as far as possible.

Steps should also be taken to overcome problems the elderly face as a result of deteriorating health due to old age, and inadequate health-care provisions Again, the responsibility should fall to the government to provide access to the best health care available, which may necessitate paying for residential homes where the elderty can have round-the-clock nursing, or. at the very least, providing medication free of charge to all people over a certain age. As a result, old people would enjoy not only better health, but also peace of mind from the knowledge that they need not fear falling ill and being unable to pay for treatment.

The lives of old people could also be improved if attempts were made to address the problem of social isolation which so many of them face. If we organised trips tor the ¿klerty to community centres, visits from social workers or free bus passes to allow pensioners greater mobility, the effect would be to alleviate the problem of loneliness which marks the lives of so many old people living alone and far from their families.

One final suggestion, which would help enormously, is to change the attitude of the community towards its older members, who are all too often seen as a burden on society and dismissed as having little to do with modem life. We need to be taught from an early age to respect the views of old people, and appreciate their broader experience of life. This would help society as a whole, and encourage appreciation of the role that old people can still play today.

To sum up, there are several measures which could be taken to improve the lives of old people. If the government and individuals alike were to help, it would make retirement and old age a time to look forward to. rather than dread.

/^Pusefi

/ * Steps j Measures

Useful Expressions: Problems & Solutions should must could be taken so as to in order to solve/overcome/combat deal with/eradicate...

Serious attempts to halt/prevent/solve ... must be made.

An alternative

• People Governments We j solve/overcome way to j combat/deal with ; eradicate this problem the problem (of) ...

should focus their/ our attention on ways to solve/overcome the problem of... to improve the situation of... to reduce the impact of... on society .

If steps/measures were taken to ... ! the effect/result/

If... happened/were to happen, consequence

If attempts were made to address the problem would be ... By ( + ing) ..., we/governments/etc, can ensure that /prevent The ... situation could be improved if .../It would be a good idea if...

• The effect/consequence outcome/result of (+noun/-ing)

would might be

3 Look at the topic below, then read the suggested solutions (1-4) and match each with its corresponding result (a-d). Finally, complete each of the sentences, as in the example.

"Crime is on the increase." Discuss this statement and offer some possible solutions.

1 One way to combat crime would be to provide more job opportunities for the poor and unemployed. The result of this would be the eradication of poverty, which Is a major cause of crime.

2 Furthermore, if the prison sentences received for certain crimes were made longer, the outcome

3 It would certainly be a good idea if police patrols were increased in high crime areas, especially at night. This would improve

4 One final suggestion which would help to solve the problem of increased crime might be to establish recreational facilities, such as sports centres. If this a keep idle youths off streets and away from crime b eradication of poverty which is a major cause of crime c discouraging criminals with immediate police presence d make criminals afraid of consequences of being caught

4 Rewrite the following sentences usin^ the words in brackets without chang' ing the meaning.

1 The environmental damage caused b\ factories will probably become more extensive if adequate measures are not imposed, (quite likely to)

2 If the number of patrols is reduced, burglaries in the area will almost certainly increase, (highly probable)

3 The public will probably react negatively to any decisions by the government to increase taxes, (bound to)

4 The problem of overpopulation will probably not be solved over the next few decades, (rather unlikely that)

5 Look at each of the following sentences, identify the problem and say what solution is suggested. Then, using expressions from the chart, write sentences explaining possible results, as in the example.

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