Complete the table with the words from the boxes.

Alternatively e.g. Finally For instance Instead of Moreover Nevertheless

On another point On the other hand On- the whole Secondly Usually

Showing a sequence: Firstly 1 ...S.emn.dl.y 2 ...Fmally..

Talking generally: In general 3 4

Making a contrast: However 5 6

Adding another point: In addition 7 8

Giving an example: For example 9 10

Above all Actually As a matter of fact For this reason i.e. In particular Obviously Of course Regarding That is to say Therefore With reference to

Saying what the real situation is: In fact 13 14

Saying something is obvious: Clearly 15 16

Giving the most important point: Especially 17 18

Rephrasing in a different way: In other words 19 20

Giving a result/consequence: As a result 21 22

Introducing a new topic: In relation to 23 24

Note: you can find more practice with linking words in units 23, 24 and 30.

Rewrite each pair of sentences as one sentence, including the word in brackets. Begin as shown, and make any necessary changes.

1 The Board issued a report. It describes options for our long-term strategy, (that) The report Jha.L.{

2 The Board issued a report. It describes options for our long-term strategy, (which) The Board J.S.$.U.e.d...a.../.epad..Mk^^

3 We interviewed three candidates. They were all very good, (who)

We interviewed

4 We interviewed three candidates. They were all very good, (that)

The three

5 Marketing want to postpone the product launch. I feel this is a mistake, (which)

Marketing want -

6 We might need to dismiss some workers. These workers are listed below, (who)

The workers

7 One team's results were particularly good< This team should be given a bonus, (whose)

The team

Look at the differences in style between these two emails. Notice how version 2 uses the key words (underlined) from version 1. The form of the words may be different.

Version 1

Subject: My ideas following last Friday's meeting

In the attached Word document you'll find my thoughts about the marketing plan that we discussed in last Friday's meeting, and in particular my response to Jenny's points about needing a new type of packaging to appeal to a younger age group. I think she raised some important issues, and so I'm circulating these ideas to everyone who was present at the meeting. Please insert your comments in the attached document and email it back to me as soon as possible.

Version 2

Subject: Ideas for packaging

We need a new type of packaging - as we all agreed in the last meeting. My ideas are in the attached document. Comments please asap.

Match the descriptions (1-6) below by underlining the most appropriate version, 1 or 2.

1 The email is direct and brief. Version 1/2

2 The email is friendly and shows more respect to the reader. Version 1/2

3 The action required is very clear. Version 1/2

4 The exact action required is not so clear. Version 1/2

5 Unless the reader knows the writer well, the email could sound a bit aggressive. Version 1/2

6 There may be too much in the email to write in a busy working day. Version 1/2

Rewrite the email below. The maximum length is 50 words, including the subject line. Some key words have been underlined to help you, but you may need to change their form.

Subject: Confirmation of our meeting as discussed by phone

I'm writing regarding our phone call earlier this morning. It was a very useful discussion and I am much clearer now about your objectives. At the end of the call you suggested a time and place for our next meeting, the lobby of the Intercontinental Hotel in Barcelona at 2JX) pm on 7th February. I believe you will be staying at the hotel at that time. I said that I would email you to confirm the meeting. Well, for me the time and place is very good -1 am free all afternoon. I look forward to seeing you there at that time and I hope that in the evening you can be my guest for dinner at a good restaurant in Barcelona.

Cross out 20 words which are not necessary in this email.

Many thanks for your email which I received yesterday. Tuesday at 10.30 is fine for me as my 9am meeting will be finished by then. Can you send me the latest sales figures before the meeting? I look forward to seeing you there.

Cross out 20 words which are not necessary in this email.

I am writing to all my colleagues to let you know that I will be away from my office from 14-21 November on a visit to Hungary. Please direct all questions that you have to Helga in my absence.

Underline the key words then rewrite the email. The maximum length is 60 words, including the subject line.

Subject: Your info re market developments in the Baltic States

Many thanks for getting in touch last week and sending me all the information about market changes in the Baltic States. It was really useful, particularly the graphs about expected demand for consumer products over the next five years. I've forwarded your email to our representative in Estonia, Krista Kilvet. She has just taken over from Doris Kareva, who I think you met in Stuttgart. Would you be interested in giving a presentation at our Head Office on the whole political and economic background in the region? I'm sure the Board would be interested as we may be making some large investments there in the near future.


Underline the key words then rewrite the email. The maximum length is 60 words, including the subject line.

Subject: Thank you for your help at the conference in London

Thank you so much for all your help during the conference on the future of the airline industry that I attended in London last week. Your help was really appreciated as I had never been to the UK before and everything was very new to me! The conference was really interesting. Of course, while I was there I also had the great pleasure to meet your UK sales team. They are a wonderful group of people and I would like you to give my best regards to all of them. As you know, there are plans to bring some of the UK staff over here to Dubai at the end of the year to see how we run the Dubai office. I look forward to seeing you then.

The short phrases in the table below use standard/neutral language. Complete the table with the polite/diplomatic phrases from the box.

Could you possibly Do you need any help with Is it all right if I I was wondering if you could I wonder if I could Perhaps we should Why don't we Would you like me to

Requests (asking somebody else)

Permission (for yourself)

Offering help


Here are more ways to make your language polite/diplomatic. Complete the words in each sentence with the missing letters.

There will be a delay.


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