Real Masculinity and Manhood
These scales are based on the recognition that most adjectives have logical opposites and where an opposing adjective is not obviously available, one can easily be generated with 'in-' or 'un-' or by simply writing 'not '. Although the scope of semantic differential scales is more limited than that of Likert scales, the ease of their construction and the fact that the method is easily adaptable to study virtually any concept, activity, or person, may compensate for this. Oppenheim (1992) raises an interesting point concerning the content of semantic differential scales. He argues that it is possible and often useful to include adjective pairs that are seemingly inappropriate to the concept under consideration, such as masculine feminine (with respect to a brand of cigarettes, for example), or rough smooth (with respect to, say, Socialism) By their more imaginative approach, such scales can be used to cover aspects that respondents can hardly put into words, though they do reflect an...
It is commonly held that women are more verbal than men. Consequently, there is considerable discussion about whether or not men and women write and speak in different ways. In a major review of the field, Pennebaker et al. (2003) concluded that women, in general, use more words related to psychological and social processes, and that men refer more to object properties and impersonal topics. However, these conclusions, of course, are related to the topics that men and women speak and write about, and how salient these topics are for them. Men and women, when they are talking about specifically masculine and feminine things (e.g. football and cosmetics), do differ in their spoken language, but do they differ in how they write about them
In a good story the reader forgets where he is and lives in the story the reader wants to be the protagonist. Fifteen Miles is a heavily masculine story. The story has been widely anthologized, which means that many editors have liked it, and many readers have seen it. I suspect that most of those readers are male. That is one of the problems a writer faces Every story choice limits your audience to some extent. When Fifteen Miles was written, the science fiction audience was almost 90 percent male. Today, nearly half the SF readers are women. It is certainly possible to write stories of adventure and exploration in which women are the protagonists. Yet I wonder if this particular story would work well if Kinsman were changed to a woman.
Note about Pronoun Usage Some characters are best looked at by their dramatic functions. To help keep this perspective, we use the impersonal pronoun it when referring to such characters. Other characters are best explored in terms of their growth. To help draw the reader into a closer relationship with such a character, we use the personal pronoun, he . Earlier editions of this book used she as the personal pronoun. Because of this uncommon usage, readers were jarred out of a relationship with personal characters, rather than being drawn in, defeating our purpose. As a result, this edition employs masculine pronouns.
Precision is a necessity in scientific writing. When you refer to a person or persons, choose words that are accurate, clear, and free from bias. For example, some writers use the generic masculine exclusively. This offends many readers, because it seems to be based on the presumption that all people are male unless proven female. Using man to refer to all human beings carries the same implication, and is simply less accurate than the phrase men and women.
Tom Wingo in The Prince of Tides and Jack Ryan in The Hunt for Red October are Female Mental Sex. In most episodes of The X Files, Scully (the female F.B.I. agent) is Male Mental Sex and Mulder (the male F.B.I. agent) is Female Mental Sex, which is part of the series' unusual feel. Note that Mental Sex has nothing to do with a character's sexual preferences or tendency toward being masculine or feminine in mannerism--it simply deals with the character's problemsolving techniques.
One interesting possibility to consider here is that the more complex text in Table 4.5.1 is typically labelled 'masculine' (as academic and legal text was originally written by men), and that the less complex text is typically labelled 'feminine' (as this type of fiction is written more frequently by women). Whatever the case, when we turn to academic writing, it is clear - from these measures - that academic writing