Tautology Repeated And Redundantwords

Tautology is the repetition of words with similar meaning, often disguised and always undetected by the spell checker. Avoiding tautologies is an important measure to keep scientific texts as lean as possible. Moreover, needless repetition of the same sense in different words confuses the reader.

Table 6.2 shows some typical examples of tautological and otherwise redundant expressions. Appendix 10.4 lists other awkward phrases to avoid.

Table 6.2 Tautological and Redundant Expressions to Avoid

TAUTOLOGY

PREFERRED TERM

adequate enough

adequate (or enough)

advance planning

planning

appear(s) to be

appear(s)

approximately 1000 to 1200

approximately 1100

basic essentials

basics (or essentials)

basic fundamentals

basics (or fundamentals)

close proximity

proximity

consensus of opinion

consensus

cooperated together

cooperated

definite decision

decision

elongate in length

elongate

extremely minimal

minimal

first priority

priority

future predictions

predictions

green colored

green

increase in increments

increase

initial prototype (model)

prototype

intradermal skin injection

intradermal injection

joint cooperation

cooperation

major breakthrough

breakthrough

Table 6.2 (Continued) Tautological and Redundant Expressions to Avoid

TAUTOLOGY

PREFERRED TERM

modern science of today

modern science

most optimum

optimum

necessary requirement

requirement

outside periphery

periphery

past history

past (or history)

rate of speed

speed

resemble in appearance

resemble

true facts

facts

twelve in number

twelve

usual rule

rule

very unique

unique

Q Do not duplicate terms and expressions.

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