Multiple Effects

Often, however, a topic entails several effects, not just one, as in the following case (the writer is concerned with what the automobile has done to our society):

Thirdly, I worry about the private automobile. It is a dirty, noisy, wasteful, and lonely means of travel. It pollutes the air, ruins the safety and sociability of the street, and exercises upon the individual a discipline which takes away far more freedom than it gives him. It causes an enormous amount of land to be unnecessarily abstracted from nature and from plant life and to become devoid of any natural function. It explodes cities, grievously impairs the whole institution of neighborliness, fragmentizes and destroys communities. It has already spelled the end of our cities as real cultural and social communities, and has made impossible the construction of any others in their place. Together with the airplane, it has crowded out other, more civilized and more convenient means of transport, leaving older people, infirm people, poor people and children in a worse situation than they were a hundred years ago. It continues to lend a terrible element of fragility to our civilization, placing us in a situation where our life would break down completely if anything ever interfered with the oil supply.

George F. Kennan

Kennan does not label the logic of his paragraph, not even by brief connectives like therefore or and so. But the sentence structure keeps the logic clear. Sentence after sentence begins with subject-verb, which suggests the cause-effect relationship: "It [the private automobile] is ... It pollutes ... It causes ... It explodes ... It has ..The repetition of this pattern supports and clarifies the logic—an example of how sentence structure contributes to paragraph unity.

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Project Management Made Easy

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