One cannot write for very long without having to explain why something happened or why it is true or false. There are numerous strategies for developing causes or reasons.1 The simplest is to ask the question "Why?" and then to supply the answer:
If, then, the language of the original colonists was merely the English of England, why does ours differ somewhat from theirs today? Three reasons can be offered.
First, the people of Great Britain in the seventeenth century spoke different local dialects. What we now consider to be standard English for England developed from the language of London and the near-by counties. But the settlers of America came not only from that region but also from many others. New England was settled largely from the eastern counties. Pennsylvania received a heavy immigration from the north of Ireland. English as it came to be spoken in New England and much of Pennsylvania thus naturally was not the same English that developed as the standard in England. For instance in what we consider typical British English of today,
1. Cause and reason are not strict synonyms: the former is more general and includes the latter. But we'll use them interchangeably.
the final r has been lost. It is, however, partially preserved in General American, possibly because the Scotch-Irish of the eighteenth century preserved that sound, as they still do in Ireland.
A second cause for the difference between the two countries lies in mere isolation. Language is always changing. When two groups of people speaking the same language are separated and remain in comparative isolation, change continues in the language of both groups, but naturally it does not continue in the same direction and at the same rate with both of them. The languages thus tend to become different.
Third, the language in the United States has been subjected to various influences that have not affected the language in Great Britenvironment, the languages of other early colonists and of later immigrants. George Stewart
Development by reasons may be more subtle. Instead of using a question-answer strategy and explicitly announcing reasons, a writer may leave the causal relationships implicit. The connection exists in the substructure of ideas but is not spelled out. In the following paragraph, for instance, only the "for" in the opening sentence makes the idea of causality explicit:
The cult of beauty in women, which we smile at as though it were one of the culture's harmless follies, is, in fact, an insanity, for it is posited on a false view of reality. Women are not more beautiful than men. The obligation to be beautiful is an artificial burden, imposed by men on women, that keeps both sexes clinging to childhood, the woman forced to remain a charming, dependent child, the man driven by his unconscious desire to an loved and taken care of simply for his beautiful self. Woman's mask of beauty is the face of a child, a revelation of the tragic sexual immaturity of both sexes in our culture. Una stannard
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