A sentence is a group of words (and sometimes a single word) that makes sense standing alone.
2. Some sentences are grammatically complete; others—called not.
3. Grammatical sentences must satisfy three criteria: they must (a) be grammatically independent, (b) have a subject and a finite verb, and (c) be properly constructed.
4. The parts of a sentence are subject, verb, object, and modifier.
5. These parts may be filled by single words or by functional word groups.
6. Functional word groups act grammatically as though they were one word. They include phrases and dependent clauses.
7. A phrase does not contain a subject-finite verb combination, though it may have a subject and a nonfinite verb form, either a participle or an infinitive.
8. There are several kinds of phrases—verb phrases, prepositional, participial, gerundive, and infinitive.
9. Clauses may be independent or dependent. Only dependent clauses act as functional word groups.
Dependent clauses are classified according to their grammatical role as noun, adverbial, or adjectival clauses. An absolute is more than a functional word group but less than a sentence. It is related in idea but not in grammar to the rest of the sentence in which it occurs.
12. Grammatical sentences come in three basic types—simple, compound, and complex—plus a combination of the last two, the compound-complex sentence.
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