Constructing The Questionnaire

2.1 General features 17

2.1.1 Length 17

2.1.2 Layout 19

2.1.3 Sensitive topics and anonymity 21

2.2 The main parts of a questionnaire 25

2.2.1 Title 25

2.2.2 Instructions 26

2.2.3 Questionnaire items 28

2.2.4 Additional information 29

2.3 Questionnaire content and multi-item scales 31

2.3.1 Appropriate sampling of the content 31

2.3.2 Using multi-item scales 32

2.4 'Closed-ended' questionnaire items 35

2.4.1 Rating scales 36

2.4.2 Multiple-choice items 43

2.4.3 Rank order items 44

2.4.4 Numeric items 46

2.4.5 Checklists 46

2.5 Open-ended questions 47

2.5.1 Specific open questions 48

2.5.2 Clarification questions 48

2.5.3 Sentence completion items 49

2.5.4 Short-answer questions 49

2.6 How to write good items 50

2.6.1 Drawing up an 'item pool' 51

2.6.2 Rules about item wording 52

2.6.3 Writing sensitive items 57

2.7 Grouping and ordering items 59

2.8 Computer programs for constructing questionnaires 62

2.9 Piloting the questionnaire and conducting item analysis 63

2.9.1 Initial piloting of the item pool 66

2.9.2 Final piloting ('dress rehearsal') 67

2.9.3 Item analysis 68

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