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Figure 1. Sample bar chart

Standard course Intensive course

Standard course Intensive course

Figure 2. Sample line chart

Figure 2. Sample line chart

Pie charts are used to describe proportions and percentages. The first pie chart in Figure 3 can display, for example, the proportion of focusing on three L2 skills in a language course. If we want to highlight changes, we can use two pies. Thus, the second pie below can be seen, for example, to represent the revised curriculum after some significant educational reform. By changing the overall size of the second pie we can also indicate growth or shrinkage (Fink, 1995) - the pie charts in Figure 3 may suggest a decrease in the total amount of tuition after the reform.

01 Speaking B Writing □ Reading

Schematic representations offer a useful way to describe complex relationships between multiple variables, and typically utilize various boxes and arrows (see Figure 4). They can be used, for example, to describe the blueprint of mental processes or the componential structure of multi-level constructs.

Pre-reform state

Post-reform state

Figure 3. Sample pie charts

Figure 4. Sample schematic representation
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