"If respondents are clear about what you are trying to find out and why, they are much more likely to respond appropriately and helpfully, or, indeed, at all. There is a curious convention that if you tell respondents what you are trying to find out, this will 'bias' them. It might simply make them more helpful. If you are mysterious about the purpose of the questionnaire they may be disinclined to answer or misunderstand the purpose, and so bias their answers in that way."

Just like the cover letter in a postal survey, the introductory speech of the questionnaire administrator needs to be carefully designed. It should briefly cover the following points:


The sponsoring organization. Purpose of the survey and its potential usefulness. Why the particular participants have been selected. Assurance of confidentiality.

• The usual duration of completing the questionnaire.

A word of caution: The manner in which the questionnaire is presented can have a considerable impact on the participants' performance. By means of illustration, Clemans (1971) reports on a study in which the same test was introduced to three different groups first as an 'intelligence test,' then as an 'achievement test,' and finally as a 'routine test.' Because of the different connotations and inherent motivating characteristics of these three conditions, there was a significant difference between the test results, with the 'intelligence test' group doing best, followed by the 'achievement test group' and finally by the 'routine test' group.

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100 Cover Letter Tips

100 Cover Letter Tips

100 Cover Letter Tips EVERY Single Person Should Know. In applying for a job, you need to know what a cover letter is so that you would be able to recognize its importance. The cover letter is actually the same as the letter of application, letter of intro duction, as well as a transmittal letter. It is a letter that should always accompany the applicant’s resume, since not too many employers would consider an application without it.

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