Define shortened forms at first mention

The first time it appears, spell out any term you want to shorten, then give its abbreviation, acronym, or initialism in parentheses. Thereafter use the shortened form. If the abbreviation appears in the abstract (not generally recommended), define it again, since this may be published separately.

The whooping crane (WC) differs from a lattice boom crane. Observers of the WC must watch that they don't become confused.

For a partial list, consult the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The IUPAC list includes only those . . .

Cultures were grown in trypticase soy broth (TSB). After TSB was added to the flask, the cultures . . .

Even if a word or phrase is defined at first mention, readers who consult only part of a chapter or journal article may have difficulty deciphering the abbreviation. Many conservative authors spell terms out at their first appearance in each major section of the typescript.

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