Pluralize correctly

When dealing with units of measure, use the same abbreviations for singular and plural forms (50 mg, 25IU, 100 ml). For all-capital abbreviations, form the plural by adding s without punctuation (EKGs, IQs).

An apostrophe normally indicates the possessive case (the animal's bones). It may also be used correctly to indicate the plural of words or lower case letters when adding an s alone would be confusing ("mind your p's and q's"). Omit the apostrophe when pluralizing all-capital abbreviations and numerals, including years.

The words page and species have special plural forms when abbreviated that sometimes cause confusion in scientific writing. One page is "p." (not "pg.") and many are "pp." (not "pgs.").

One species is "sp." and many are "spp."

To determine the identity of Xanthoxylon spp. consult Smith (1999, pp. 10-48).

As the author states, "Infection by Amblyomma sp. is a serious matter"

Table 5.4. Standard abbreviations for U.S. states, territories, and possessions

Ala. (AL)

Ga. (GA)

Md. (MD)

N. Mex. (NM)

S.D./S. Dak. (SD)

Alaska (AK)

Guam (GU)

Mass. (MA)

N.Y. (NY)

Tenn. (TN)

Amer. Samoa

Hawaii (HI)

Mich. (MI)

N.C. (NC)

Tex. (TX)


Ariz. (AZ)

Idaho (ID)

Minn. (MN)

N.D./N. Dak. (ND)

Utah (UT)

Ark. (AR)

Ill. (IL)

Miss. (MS)

Ohio (OH)

Vt. (VT)

Calif. (CA)

Ind. (IN)

Mo. (MO)

Okla. (OK)

Va. (VA)

Colo. (CO)

Iowa (IA)

Mont. (MT)

Ore./Oreg. (OR)

Wash. (WA)

Conn. (CT)

Kans. (KS)

Nebr. (NE)

Pa. (PA)

W. Va. (WV)

Del. (DE)

Ky. (KY)

Nev. (NV)

Puerto Rico (PR)

Wis./Wisc. (WI)

D.C. (DC)

La. (LA)

N.H. (NH)

R.I. (RI)

Wyo. (WY)

Fla. (FL)

Maine (ME)

N.J. (NJ)

S.C. (SC)

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