Active voice is generally preferred because it uses fewer words and is more direct as it focuses on the action the

Active Voice Bill delivered the pizza. Passive Voice The pizza was delivered by Bill. There are times when it is appropriate to use passive voice. Use the passive voice to emphasize the receiver of an action rather than the performer of an action. Passive Voice Jay was given an award by the principal. Use the passive voice to point out the receiver of an action whenever the performer is not important or not easily identified. Passive Voice The hazardous material was removed to another location....

And Writing Prompts

Break the subject (an object, event, or concept) down into parts. Then explain the various parts and how they relate to the whole. Show how two things are similar as well as different include details or examples. Show how two things are different include details or examples. Point out both the good and the bad points of something. Give an accurate meaning of a term with enough detail to show that you really understand it. Write about the subject so the reader can easily visualize it tell how it...

As You Read

Ask yourself questions and answer them, almost the way a teacher does. 1. What is the setting How does it contribute to the over-all effectiveness of the story 2. Who are the main characters and what are they like How do they change 3. What is the main character's conflict or goal 4. What obstacles or problems stand in his or her way 5. What will be the outcome and how will it come about 6. What is unclear or confusing 7. What predictions do you make 8. What are you visualizing in your mental...

Authors Names Not Used Directly in Your Text

One view is that The Scarlet Letter is not about sinful passion but about grand passion (Sandeen 350). Two or Three Authors (Flores, Jordan, and Smith 178) Four or More Authors Use only the last name of the first author with et al., which is Latin for and others. (Josephs et al. 24) Unknown Author Use a short form of the title in parentheses. (Earth 321) Authors with the Same Last Name Use the first initial or, if necessary because both authors have the same first initial, the full name of the...

Avoid dangling modifiers which do not modify an appropriate noun or pronoun

Unclear Walking down the street, the beautiful building was admired. Clear Walking down the street, we admired the beautiful building. Unclear After changing a tire, the jack fell on my foot. Clear After changing the tire, I dropped the jack on my foot. Unclear To become student body president, election by students and faculty is necessary. Clear To become student body president, a candidate must be elected by students and faculty. Unclear At the age of six, Bob's family moved to Long Beach....

Avoid omissions that confuse meaning use necessary words to prevent misreading

Incorrect Bill never has and never will like his new school. Correct Bill never has liked and never will like his new school. Incorrect Our students are as skilled, if not more skilled than, those of any other high school. Correct Our students are as skilled as, if not more skilled than, those of any other high school. Unclear Mr. Torres helped me more than Kelly. Clear Mr. Torres helped me more than he helped Kelly. Clear Mr. Torres helped me more than Kelly did. Unclear Mary found all the...

Avoid shifts from indirect to direct questions or quotations

Unclear I wonder if the man knew about the reward, and if so, did he return the wallet to the police Clear Did the man know about the reward, and if so, did he return the wallet to the police Clear I wonder if the man knew about the reward, and if so, whether he returned the wallet to the police. Unclear Karen said that she is a freshman and please show me where the gym is. Clear Karen said, I am a freshman. Please show me where the gym is. Clear Karen said that she is a freshman and asked me...

Before The Test

What will the questions look like Pay attention to any pretest samples of items on the test that you go over in class or receive prior to taking a test. Know as much about the format of the test as you can so that you do not have to puzzle out any directions on the day of the test. Prepare yourself physically for the test. Get an adequate amount of sleep and eat a good breakfast before the test. If the test will be long and you will have a break, bring a...

Before You Read Preview and skim the material

What do you already know about the topic Think about past experiences with other subjects you know about and how they may connect to what you are going to read. 2. What can you expect it to tell you Non-fiction text is typically organized using one of the following structures Generic List Compare Contrast Sequential List Problem Solution When you preview the text, as well as while you are reading, pay attention to which text structure(s) the author has used to organize the information. Read the...

Capitalize the first word of a quoted sentence unless it is part of the sentence that introduces it

He asked, Is Jack going to San Francisco this summer Jack, she said, is not going anywhere this summer. Russell Baker has written that in our country it is sport that is the opiate of the masses. Capitalize the first, last, and all important words in the titles and subtitles of books, magazines, newspapers, articles, plays, poems, songs, essays, speeches, historical documents, works of art. The Great Gatsby (novel) Death of a Salesman (play) Time (magazine) The Scarlet Ibis (short story) We...

Causes Effects Graphic Organizer

Free labor vs. slavery class differences Free labor vs. slavery class differences OUTLINING Outlining is a formal organizing tool that helps you to see relationships and to see the parts of your subject. Usually, some other brainstorming process proceeds the use of an outline. More details about outlining can be found under Outlining in the Writing the Research Paper section of this handbook.

Changes directly on your text

Carets (A) to insert words, phrases, and lines Arrows Ao connect text so that you can use available space on the page or to indicate where particular pieces should be. Asterisks (*) and Other Codes Such as Numbers to insert pieces and passages larger than a caret or an arrow can accommodate. The material to be inserted can then be written on a separate sheet of paper with corresponding symbols. Circles and Highlighting to see visually what should be regrouped together or kept in the text....

Check Organization Content And Elaborationcommentary

Does your title raise the reader's interest and reflect the content of the paper (You may be able to find a line or a phrase within your paper that can be pulled out to make a good title, or you may be able to write a title that is ironic or insightful now that you have completed a draft.) To help you compose the best title, write as least five or ten different titles for your paper. This helps you decide which one is the best and most focused. Have you caught your reader's attention and given...

Checking Your Work to Correct Fragments

If you think a group of words might not be a sentence, test it 1. Check to see if there is a subject. If there is no subject, it is a fragment. 2. Next, check to see if the group of words has a verb that is not a verbal phrase (ing or ed participle forms or infinitive forms made from the word plus the base form of the verb as in to wait). If there is no verb, it is a fragment. 3. Finally, check to see if the group of words starts with any of the other constructions in the above examples and in...

Choose a subject that meets the requirements of the class and that interests you

Make your subject into a question that is worth researching. Although you might start with a general subject like Who was Rosa Parks , by the end of your research, you want to have a more probing question. This probing question may emerge as you gather your research and actually start to write. In the student model at the end of this section, rather than merely listing the events in Rosa Parks' life, the student poses the question, Does Rosa Parks meet the criteria for a hero This question...

Citing Literary Sources Novel page chapter

On the opening page of Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby, Nick, the narrator, says that he wants no more riotous excursions with privileged glimpses into the human heart (1 ch. 1). Verse Play (act. scene. line numbers) In the famous balcony scene, Juliet asks, What's in a name (2. 2. 43-44). Poem (line numbers) This is my letter to the World That never wrote to Me-proclaims Emily Dickinson in her poem which seems to sum up her sense of isolation (1-2).

Clues Within The Words Themselvesword Parts

Many English words are made from combinations of Greek and Latin prefixes, roots, and suffixes. Knowing some of these important word parts can greatly increase your ability to figure out and understand new words. Example Many politicians still favor the use of geothermal energy. If you recognize geo from the word geography, you may know that the prefix geo means earth. Then you could use the root word therm to think of thermometer or thermos which have to do with temperature and heat. These...

Common Word Parts

Off, from, away not, without around, both to, toward, near antecedent, antediluvian, antemeridian cooperate, colleague, combine, concurrent, contradict, counterclockwise descend, debark, dehydrate decade, December, decimal demigod, demitasse dichromatic diameter twice, double across, through not, away, away from eccentric, eclipse, efface, emigrate, erode, escarpment, ignore, illegible, immature, ineligible, irreplaceable induct, illuminate, imbibe, imprint, irradiate proceed, prologue,...

Completing A Job Application

Know all important names and addresses and how to spell them correctly. Have all important phone numbers handy. Know an appropriate starting pay to request. Have a picture ID and your Social Security Card with you. Have a dark blue or black ink pen with you. Know at least two references who have given you permission to use their names. Complete application neatly, completely, correctly. Read all instructions carefully. PRINT unless told otherwise. Read over the form before signing and giving...

Connections

Of Mice and Men and Romeo and Juliet what men and women will sacrifice for love The Pearl and Brave New World social corruption Explore ways that friendships between people of different cultures affect the growth of human understanding. Reflect on how the existence of nuclear bombs affects human lives. Explain how an incident or event in a novel or play are similar to an incident or event that you've experienced. Discuss how experience is the key to learning. Explain how the experiences of a...

Context Clues

The context of a word consists of the sentence containing the unknown word as well as the other sentences that surround it. The construction of the sentence may contain clues to the word's meaning. 1. Sentences Containing a Definition. Sometimes a definition is included in the sentence itself. This often occurs in textbooks. Example People who suffer from acrophobia, or fear of heights, shouldn't climb mountains. The underlined word, acrophobia, is defined as fear of heights within the sentence...

Correctly use the conventions of the English language Sample Strategies to Stimulate Reflective Thinking

Collect possible occasions for reflection Keep a journal chart of everything that happens during a 24-hour period. List the particular conversations overheard, scenes observed, incidents experienced in the left column and the general life-symbols they might represent in the right. Particular Occasion Possible Extension of Meaning Particular Occasion Possible Extension of Meaning Pain - the little things that hurt so much The fine line between curiousity and maliciousness reputations lost...

Criteria for effective thesis statements

That is, it must be a statement where more than one point of view is possible and credible. 2. It should forecast the overall movement of the argument. 3. It should be about a topic that has some significance beyond the individual writer's idiosyncratic preferences. That is, it should have relevance to a wider audience than to the writer him- or herself and a few friends. 4. The writer must be confident s he can develop and argue the thesis. That is the writer must think...

Dialectical Journal

The Dialectical Journal is a way for you, the reader, to get involved with and find meaning in a text--a novel, play, poem, short story, essay, or any other type of literature--by creating thinking and feeling relationships between you an the text. While you read, you will participate in a dialogue with yourself, the characters, and even the author. asking questions seeing patterns creating hypotheses forming associations making predictions analyzing style making connections (text-to-self,...

Directions As you read keep a twosided journal

On the left-hand side, write down particular On the right-hand side, react to each passage, giving an honest response or reason for choosing that particular passage. Your response may be an emotional or intellectual reaction anything from the text which you find interesting. a connection to something else you've read or Your responses become a dialogue with the text, not just a personal reflection. You need to stretch your Write the passage down with the page number. interaction with the text...

Do not use commas if all items are joined by and or or

We are serving soup and salad and cake. Use a comma between two coordinate adjectives that precede a noun. Adjectives are coordinate if they can be joined with and or if they can be scrambled without losing meaning in the sentence. Since they modify the noun separately, they can be used in any order. He is a tall, handsome boy. (coordinate) Gary is a warm, gentle, affectionate father. (coordinate) He is a handsome young man. (cumulative) We ate the rich strawberry pie with cold vanilla ice...

Documentation needed

On his fourth voyage, following a shipwreck which forced him to land on the Island of Jamaica, Columbus found the inhabitants hostile to his party. He knew from the Astronomic Calendar of Regiomontus that a total eclipse of the moon was soon to take place. He, therefore, warned the Indians that should their enmity continue, he would cause the moon to lose its light. When the eclipse took place, the terrified natives scurried to his campsite, offering friendship and supplies if he would give...

Documenting Bibliographic Entries

The MOST COMMON TYPES OF SOURCES are listed below with both a description of the information needed and an example. See the Useful Abbreviations section that follows to interpret abbreviations that are new to you. Notice that only the first line of a bibliographic entry begins at the left margin any following lines are indented. Last Name of Author(s), First. Title of Book. Place of Publication Publisher, Year of Publication. Gunther, John. Death Be Not Proud. New York Harper Collins, 1949....

Documenting Sources

Documenting sources is the practice of giving credit for all statements, ideas, and quotes that you take from others. In the MLA documentation style, citations are given in the text itself rather than as footnotes or endnotes. The sources of your material may be indicated in two ways. You can include the author's name in your text itself, followed by parentheses enclosing the page number where you found the material (24). Or, if the author is not credited by name in your text itself, include...

During The Test

Listen carefully to all the directions. Be sure to notice if the directions change during the test. In many tests the directions at the beginning do not cover all of the items, and you will have to change your procedure one or more times on your own. This is why knowing the test format ahead of time is so important you do not want to waste time figuring out what you are being asked to do. Take care filling in the bubbles on your answer sheet. A Scan-tron machine-not a human-has to be able to...

Editorial in a Newspaper

Boston Globe 13 July 1993 14. Letter to the Editor Benston, Graham. Letter. Opera Now. May 1993 12. Book or Film Review Kermode, Frank. Criticism without Machinery. Rev. of Literary Reflections by R. W. B. Lewis. New York Times Book Review 11 July 1993 16. Holden, Stephen. A Union of Convenience across a Cultural Divide, Rev. of The Wedding Banquet. dir. Ang Lee. With Winston Chao, May Chin, and Mitchell Litchtenstein. Goldwyn, 1993. New York Times 4 Aug. 1993...

Essay Format

Note Many academic assignments require a five paragraph essay. In reality, the five paragraph essay is a flexible frame that can easily be expanded or contracted depending on your thesis. For example, it might take three paragraphs just to discuss the first idea in the thesis, which would expand this frame to a seven-paragraph essay. On the other hand, it might require only four paragraphs to support another thesis. Paragraph 1 Introduction (3 to 5 sentences, 40-75 words approximately) Starts...

Expository Writing Applications Standard

The main goal of expository writing is to inform or explain. Expository writing is used to share knowledge and convey messages, instructions or ideas. The writer skillfully produces a thesis statement and supports it with relevant evidence to provide the reader with knowledge that answers the who, what, where, when, why, or how of a subject. Connections are made between the thesis and primary and secondary sources to support claims and enhance the reader's understanding of the subject. This...

Format

Use white paper that is 8 1 2 x 11 inches in size when you use a word processor and ruled notebook paper when you are handwriting. Make sure that the edges are clean do not hand in paper with feeder tracks or paper ripped out of a spiral notebook. 2. Write on only one side of the paper. 3. Write in blue or black ink or use a word processor for all final drafts. 4. If you are handwriting, do not skip lines between paragraphs unless you are writing a first draft. 5. If you are using a word...

Four Ways To Correct Runon Sentences

Use a period to separate the clauses into two sentences. Correct It rained heavily this morning. The freeways and surface streets flooded. This is the simplest way to correct run-ons. However, run-on sentences often occur because a relationship of some kind exists between the two independent clauses. The following choices make those relationships more clear. 2. Use a comma and a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so). Correct It rained heavily this morning, and the surface...

Government Publication

Endowment for the Humanities. Study Grants for College and University Teachers. Washington GPO, 1993. Pamphlet (Cite a pamphlet as you would a book.) United States. Dept. of the Interior. Nat'I. Park Service. Ford's Theatre and the House Where Lincoln Died. Washington GPO, 1998. Work of Art (Cite the artist's name, followed by the title of the art work, usually underlined, and the institution and city in which the art work can be found.) Cassatt, Mary. At the Opera. Museum...

Grades Feedback Scoring Guide Responses to Literature Essay Analytical Checklist

This is a generic tooll that can be adapted to a variety of narrative pieces. 1. Does the title express and or deepen the subject of the essay 2. Does the response to literature essay clearly address the writing task 3. Does the lead draw the reader in 4. Does the lead establish a purpose for writing 5. Does the introduction include the title, author, and genre (TAG) to be discussed 2 3 4 6. Does the writer demonstrate an understanding of the work as a whole and or the significant ideas of the...

How to develop a thesis statement

Today's high school students are depicted in the media as selfish and concerned only about themselves. What happens when you add one of the following words to the front of this sentence Although, because, it, when Although today's high school students are depicted in the media as selfish and concerned only about themselves. What do you observe about this sentence now Try rewriting this sentence now and then rewrite substituting each of the other three words above. How does each word change the...

In all other words containing these vowels ie is used

Achievement, friendly, view, believe, niece, mischief, chief, priest, wield, field, relieve, siege When a suffix beginning with a vowel is added to a root ending in silent e, the silent e is dropped. NOTE There are some exceptions to this rule. For example, in words ending in ce or ge, the e is generally retained before the suffix -able or -ous in order to keep the soft sound of the c and g in these words. The e is also kept in a word like dyeing to distinguish it from dying. notice -able...

Incorrect Shaquille ONeal plays for the Lakers The best team in the NBA

The best team in the NBA is an appositive that renames or identifies the Lakers. Correct Shaquille O'Neal plays for the Lakers, the best team in the NBA. Attach the fragment to the independent clause preceding it. Note Sometimes fragments are used for special purposes for emphasis, to mimic conversation, or to answer rhetorical questions. Although fragments may be appropriate and are often used in modern fiction and advertising, use complete sentences unless you are sure of your audience.

Lecture Notes Using a Two Column System

Use this system to keep notes that are easily readable, that contain all of the important information, that contain possible questions covered on the exam, and that are consistent in style. the title of the topic being discussed. 2. Only use one side of your paper. This will allow you to study your notes easily without having to search on the front and back of each page looking for information. 3. On the main part of your note page, to the right of the margin, record the information you will...

Make your notes visual

Indent, use symbols, and use different handwriting. Be liberal with your use of space. Do not make your notes harder to read just to save paper. Remember, you are taking notes so you can use them easily in the future. If you have a tendency to doodle while taking notes, use a separate page. Keep your notes free of extraneous marks. 6. Review your notes by covering the right portion of the page and attempting to recall the information based upon the references and questions in the left margin.

Narrative Writing Applications Standard

The main goal of narrative writing is to narrate a sequence of events and scenes with sensory details and appropriate strategies to develop plot and character. The writer presents an action or a series of actions in such a way that the reader has a sense of being present at that time and place. Narrative writing describes what happened but also may describe how it happened and why it happened. It requires writers to closely observe, explore and reflect upon a wide range of experiences. It...

NEVER recopy any part of a timed essay

TAG a literature essay by giving the title, author, and genre in the introduction. Assume the reader knows the literary work (do not ever summarize plot). Leave I and you out unless necessary. Avoid slang avoid repeating words or phrases. Use present tense when narrating the action in literature--Gabriel is jealous not Gabriel was jealous. Literature exists on the page it lives now, it is present. If your essay requires a title, it should give a clue to what your essay's purpose is, not repeat...

Opinion

The order events happen in over a period of time. The order in which events happen over time or the order required to produce some thing. (The first step, the second step, etc.) A word that has the same or nearly the same meaning as another word. A word that means the opposite of another word. Ideas that can be proven to be true or false by research or observation. A person's judgment. May be a conclusion drawn from facts, but may also be based purely on feelings. What can you do when you...

Personal Rsum For College And Scholarship Recommendations

Use the sample below to create a personal r sum for college and scholarship recommendations early in the fall of your twelfth grade year. The r sum should be a chronological summation of your academic background, your curricular and extracurricular activities, and your personal accomplishments. These can be arranged to emphasize what you want the reader to see first. In fact, you could have different r sum s for different purposes the r sum you use for a college application recommendation might...

Persuasive Writing Applications Standard

The main goal of persuasive writing is to convince. The writer skillfully defends a position about a topic and supports it with relevant evidence to provide the reader with a convincing argument about the topic. Support is given to each claim to persuade the reader of the validity of the writer's position on the topic. Persuasive writing moves the reader to take an action or to form or change an opinion. It requires thinking skills such as analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Persuasive...

Pronoun Antecedent Agreement

Personal pronouns must agree with their antecedents in number, person, and gender. Antecedents are the nouns, or the words that take the place of nouns, which pronouns replace in a sentence. - Use a singular personal pronoun when two or more singular antecedents are joined by or or nor. Neither George nor Darrell can find his book. - Use a plural personal pronoun when two or more singular antecedents are joined by and. George and Darrell have found their books. - Do not shift person or gender....

Proper Nounscommon Nouns

Poly High School a high school or college First National Bank a firm or corporation The Freshman Class a freshman in high school First Baptist Church a church or temple or shrine God (used as a name) a god Buddhism a religion Buddhist, Baptist a religious follower Genesis a sacred book Lafayette Hotel a building Heartwell Park a city or county park Professor L. M. Smith a professor at U.C.L.A. Lt. Fred Bishop an army lieutenant Vice President of the U.S the company's vice president Uncle John...

Quotation Marks

Use quotation marks to enclose a direct quotation (the exact words of a speaker). I am going home, she said, as soon as I have finished my work. I am going home, she said. I have finished my work. Use single quotation marks to enclose a quotation within a quotation. We have often wondered, he mused, what she means when she says 'List your majors for graduation.' Use quotation marks to enclose titles of articles, chapters in books, single essays, short stories, and individual short poems. Edgar...

Quote exactly using the wording spelling and punctuation of your source

If you leave out a portion of the original, use three . . . spaced periods in place of the portion, in addition to any punctuation that precedes or follows. If you insert a word, enclose it in square brackets . In quoting poetry, you may include two or three lines or less in the body of your paragraph in quotation marks, using a slash ( ) to separate the lines but if you quote three or more lines, you should separate them from your paragraph, introduce them with a colon, center them on the...

Reading Strategies

recalling prior knowledge and experiences which relate to the material being read. thinking of what they already know about the genre or the author. predicting what will happen next. creating visual images of what the text is saying. summarizing important ideas and concepts both during and after the reading. drawing inferences, based on the text and their own prior knowledge, about ideas the author suggests but does not explicitly state. generating questions about author's purpose, character...

Recognizing And Correcting Runon Sentences

When two or more independent clauses appear in one sentence without appropriate punctuation, the sentence is called a run-on sentence. Two types of run-on sentences exist the fused sentence that has no punctuation separating the independent clauses and the comma splice which has a comma between the two independent clauses. Incorrect It rained heavily this morning the freeways and surface streets flooded. (fused sentence) Incorrect It rained heavily this morning, the freeways and surface streets...

Reflective Rubric Grades

Advanced Proficient The paper does all or most of the followina The response - meditative, penetrating, thoughtful, probing, exploratory title enhances the reflection. clearly addresses all parts of the writing task. presents a topic for reflection through the effective use of strategies such as narration, description, exposition or persuasion. thoughtfully and convincingly explores the significance of the topic. effectively maintains a balance between the specific incident and broader themes...

Reflective Writing Writing Application Standard

The main goal of reflective writing is to allow a writer to explore and discover meaning in his or her own experiences often an ordinary thing that is seen, done, read, overheard or experienced will, upon reflection, trigger a comment on life. Writers are provided the opportunity to consider feelings, concerns, or reactions to important issues. Anything that is a part of your life provides the starting point for a reflective essay. Consider ideas in your journal as possible topics. To produce a...

Response To Literature Writing Application Standard

The main goal of responding to literature is to demonstrate thoughtful comprehension of a literary passage. The process of responding to a piece of literature involves the thinking skills of analyzing, evaluating, making inferences, and drawing conclusions. The writer skillfully produces an idea about a text and supports it with textual evidence to demonstrate a thoughtful response to the text. Connections are made among the main ideas of the text, the reader's viewpoint and the author's style....

Revision Check List

WHAT IS REVISION Revision is looking back with some distance to re-see and substantially change your paper. It is not just recopying the paper neatly or fixing the conventions. Think about what you have discovered while writing your first draft and getting feedback from others. What changes can you make that will make your paper stronger FOUR STRATEGIES FOR REVISION Revision consists of four basic strategies that can be done with at the word, the phrase, the sentence, the paragraph, or even the...

Rsum For A

A r sum gives an employer a picture of you. R sum s should be one page long if possible. R sum s are always typed. It is helpful to submit a r sum with an application even if is is not required. See the sample below for one way to set up a r sum . 200 Movie Avenue Long Beach, CA 90815 (562) 555-4321 An entry-level part-time office position, with opportunities for training and advancement High School Diploma after June, 2000. Current grade point average 3.0 Baby-sitting in various homes for...

Rules for outlining

Center the title above the outline the title is not one of the lettered or numbered topics. Do not include terms of organization, such as introduction, body, and conclusion in your outline. Keep the terms in mind as you write, however, so that the outline shows these elements, even though they are not labeled. Write a thesis sentence just below the title. This sentence states the main idea which is to be developed in your outline. Develop a three-level outline that is, use Roman numerals,...

Sample Narrative Topics

Write about an incident you experienced in school. Write about an incident in which you Tell about a special friend and an event you shared. Write about a favorite childhood memory. Which events were the most significant in the life of a successful man or woman Tell in your own words an incident in a novel or play that is the most memorable or significant in the whole work. Describe the experiences a specific artist or musician had before arriving at his or her full artistic potential. Which...

Sample Persuasive Topics

Write to persuade someone that it's better to eat healthy food than junk food. Write to persuade a reader that the best class in school is_and why. Write a letter to a younger person explaining why it's important to do well in school. Write about what the best invention is and why Write about what is the best place to visit and why Write about what is the most important thing to maintain a friendship and why Write an essay explaining the best way to study and explain why it's the best. Write a...

Selfediting Checklist

I have edited my piece for the following _ 1. Sentences begin with capital letters. _ 2. Sentences have appropriate ending punctuation. _ 5. Commas are used in compound sentences, for listing the items in a series, and after introducing clauses or phrases. _ 6. Quotation marks (where necessary) are used correctly. _ 7. Apostrophes are used correctly for contractions. _ 8. Apostrophes are used correctly for possessive nouns. _ 9. Words I know I have trouble with or am unsure about have been...

Set up the first page of an assignment as shown in the sample below

Identify the assignment & type of assignment Title Top Line (if required by teacher) Title Top Line (if required by teacher) Jerome Brown English Rer. 6 February 6, 200_ Ponyboy himself is telling the story, wee thoughts, feelings, and actions as he reveals them to us. Right-hand corner (Name, Subject, Period, Date) This is what standard cursive handwriting should look like. Ox SA QolXLA S CWA Ja p ftX a Ja, Si Here is an example of standard printing. An Rh Ce Dr Es. Ff fig Hh I i . I j Kk I...

Sharing Trying your draft out on real readers

This is an important stage because it allows you to get feedback on your writing. What is working well in your piece What parts are unclear or need more detail A writing group or a response partner can help you to see your work more clearly and can offer you insights into what you need to do for revision. You might share with a writing group or have a peer respond via a response form or by writing questions directly on your paper. You might read your piece out loud and ask your responder to...

Sources from the World Wide

Sources on the World Wide Web that students and scholars use in their research include scholarly projects, reference databases, the texts of books, articles in periodicals, and professional and personal sites. Entries in a works-cited list for such sources contain as many items from the list below as are relevant and available. Following this list are sample entries for some common kinds of Web sources. 1. Name of the author, editor, compiler, or translator of the source (if available and...

Stages In The Writing Process Prewriting Getting ideas What do you have to say

Whether you are given a specific prompt (writing assignment) to answer or a general purpose such as writing a persuasive essay or writing about something that you have experienced, you need to think through and to gather your ideas. Ask yourself What do I know about this topic, or what would I like to write about Ideas may come from your past experiences, your reading, your interests, your thoughts or feelings about a subject, or your class discussion. Get your ideas written down in some way so...

Subjectverb Agreement

Make sure subjects and verbs agree in number. To make a subject and a verb agree, make sure both are singular or both are plural. The plurals of most subjects, nouns, are formed by adding s or es. Verbs are more complex. The following verb chart shows verb forms that always take a singular subject as well as verbs that can have either singular or plural subjects. In the following examples, the subjects will be italicized and the verbs will be italicized and in bold type.

Suffixes

Word endings or suffixes change the grammatical function of words they do not change the root meanings of words. He does a careful job. He works carefully. A form of the word care is used in both sentences. In the first sentence the word is an adjective directing attention to the end result, the job. In the second sentence it is an adverb directing attention to the activity, the work being done. adjective ending able to, tend to, worthy of adj. noun ending having, affected by editorial,...

Taking Lecture Notes

Taking good notes is an essential part of becoming a successful student. Note-taking sharpens your listening skills and provides an organized, visual summary of a lecture for future review and exam preparation. Develop a consistent system which will allow you to recall information quickly and will effectively stimulate your memory. Do not try to write down everything a teacher says. Use standard abbreviations and create your own abbreviations so that you can keep up with the lecture.

Taking notes is an important part of gathering information for the research paper Since the entire contents of a book

One way to take notes is to use 3 x 5 or 4 x 6 cards. Like bibliography cards, note cards are easy to carry and to arrange. In addition, they help you to keep your notes brief and to the point. Include only one topic on a card. Give each card a heading topic that refers to a category of information. Center this heading topic at the top of the note card. In most cases, summarize or paraphrase that is, put in your own words what you have read. Occasionally, you may consider it important to quote...

Thank You Notes

Thank you notes show good manners and are still an expected part of social life. They should be sent in the following situations to recognize the sender's significant gift for a major life event and to let the sender know the gift was received. A gift represents a considerable amount of cost and effort. Therefore, if the gift is sent by mail or is left at a reception to be opened at a later time, the sender needs to know his gift arrived safely. These occasions include - religious occasions...

The Comma

The comma helps readers to clarify a sentence's meaning the comma eliminates ambiguity for the reader. Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction joining independent clauses (word groups that could stand alone as separate sentences). The seven coordinating conjunctions are for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so. If the two independent clauses are short and there is no danger of misreading, the comma may be omitted. There is considerable sentiment in favor of the project, and this sentiment is...

The Dash

Use a dash to mark a sudden break, an abrupt change in thought, or other parenthetical material for special emphasis. A dash is the same as two hyphens (--). Do not put a space before or after a dash. His answer--and I'm not exaggerating--convulsed the class with laughter. Use dashes to set off appositives that contain commas. Dump Cake--a dessert made from cake mix, oil, water, eggs, pudding mix, sour cream, and chocolate chips--is a favorite treat for family gatherings. Use a dash to prepare...

The Ellipsis Mark

The ellipsis mark consists of three spaced periods, beginning with a space before the first period ( . . . . ). Use the ellipsis mark to show that you have deleted material from a quotation. Smithsonian reports that views of nature . . . . make a significant difference in intensive care units. If you delete a full sentence or more in the middle of a quoted passage, use a period and then use the three ellipsis marks. (. . . . ) Do not use an ellipsis at the beginning of a quotation do not use...

The following is a key to some of the most common abbreviations you will encounter and possibly use in preparing your

Dir. director, used to identify the director of a film or play. ed., eds. editor(s) or edition, used in the first sense to identify the compiler or compilers who also added notes, introductory statements, and the like. e.g. exempli gratia (Latin) for example, always preceded and followed by commas. et al. et alii (Latin) and others, used to refer to others involved in the writing of a source without naming them. i.e. id est (Latin) that is, in other words, preceded and followed by commas. narr....

The Paper

Type the paper using a clear academic font in a 10 or 12 point size as you would any other essay. Be sure to double-space and to use one inch margins all around. See Assignment and Manuscript Form. Center the title again on the first page of the text. Number the pages with your last name and number (DeCoudres 1) in the upper right hand corner, one-half inch from the top and flush with the right margin starting on the first page of the paper and continuing through to you list of works cited.

The Sample Research Paper

Begin the list on a new page at the end of your paper. Continue the numbering of pages as in the body of your research paper. Center the Works Cited title an inch from the top of the page. Double-space between the title and the first entry continue to double-space both within and between entries. Alphabetize entries according to the last names of authors. If the author of an entry is unknown, begin with the title, alphabetizing the entry by the first word on the title other than A, An, or The....

The Writing Process

Good writing does not happen magically it is the result of a process you can learn and use. Although the process appears to have a beginning, a middle, and an end, your actual process varies according to your purpose, your audience, and the writing assignment or task. The important thing to know is what works for you as a writer and to apply the process flexibly, knowing that sometimes you need to stop and to go back to an earlier step even though you might feel finished with other portions of...

There Should be a Limited Teen Driver License

Arguments for the limited license 1. More practice before driving freeways 2. More experience before driving at night 1. Teens will not create accidents 2. Fewer people would be in cars with teen drivers II. Arguments against the limited license A. Restrictions will require teens to depend on adults B. Teens may try to break the law III. Safety is more important than convenience

To compose a reflective essay writers

choose a topic that is personally significant and will encourage readers to think or wonder. craft an introduction that will create interest about a topic. include a controlling thesis in the introduction. connect the ideas, events, or issues with beliefs or convictions. organize the essay to maintain a balance between the issue or ideas (topic) and beliefs and reflections. write from a personal point of view. The essay becomes a form of self-study. choose a tone that is candid and sincere....

To successfully respond to literature or text the writer

Reads and understands the literature or text. Creates a meaningful and interesting thesis about the text. Engages the reader's interest in the introduction. Provides textual evidence to support the thesis. Draws thoughtful conclusions about the text. Uses relevant and interesting details to support ideas. Discusses the ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text. Demonstrates an awareness of the author's style and purpose within the text. Correctly uses the conventions of the...

To write a successful expository essay the writer

Creates a meaningful and interesting thesis Engages the reader's interest in the introduction Uses valuable and significant information from a variety of sources to support the thesis Provides information that goes beyond the obvious Uses relevant and interesting details to support ideas Anticipates readers' questions, misunderstandings, biases, and expectations Synthesizes the ideas and information into a thoughtful conclusion Correctly uses the conventions of the English language Possible...

To write a successful narrative essay the writer

Chooses an interesting topic Uses a variety of sources to research accurate details Forms a clear controlling focus on idea, and in a few cases may include a thesis Establishes a clear context of time and place Arranges events in an order that emphasizes causal relationships between events Takes a point of view from which to describe events Chooses appropriate tone and pace May speculate on characters' motives Draws a conclusion from the events described Correctly uses the conventions of the...

To write a successful persuasive essay the writer

Appeals to the reader's interest in the introduction. Clarifies and defends a position with precise and relevant evidence. Provides support that goes beyond the obvious. Uses relevant and convincing details to support ideas. Addresses readers' concerns, counterclaims, biases, and expectations. Structures the ideas in a sustained and logical fashion. Correctly uses the conventions of the English language. Possible modes of Persuasive Writing Speculations of causes...

To write a successful technical document the writer

learns the specifics of the information and ideas being presented. creates a clear and meaningful introduction. clarifies the readers' need to know the information. organizes the information in a logical manner to help aid the readers' comprehension. includes critical information using accurate and specific language. anticipates readers' problems, mistakes, and misunderstandings. incorporates scenarios, definitions, and examples to aid the readers' comprehension. synthesizes the ideas and...

Transitional Expressions

conjunctive adverbs such as however, moreover, and therefore, transitional phrases such as for example, as a matter of fact, in other words, and for instance. When a transitional expression appears between independent clauses in a compound sentence, it is preceded by a semicolon and is usually followed by a comma. Our exchange student is unfamiliar with our customs moreover, she does not speak English. David's skateboard is broken therefore, he will need to buy a new one.

Transitional Phrases

Use a semicolon between independent clauses when the second clause starts with one of the following after all, as a matter of fact, as a result, at the same time, even so, for example, for instance, in addition, in conclusion, in fact, in other words, in the first place, on the contrary, on the other hand. When a transitional expression appears between independent clauses in a compound sentence, it is preceded by a semicolon and is usually followed by a comma. Our foreign exchange student is...

Use plural verbs with plural indefinite pronouns including the following both few many others and several

Both of the trumpet players were late. Many of the students have taken the bus to the game. Use a singular verb with a noun expressing an amount or measurement. Twenty feet was the length of the play. Three-fourths of the cake has been eaten. Exception Half is always plural because it refers to several individual items. Half of the apples were rotten. Use a singular verb with collective nouns unless the meaning of the noun is definitely plural. Collective nouns name groups of people or things...

Use these same notetaking principles when you have to take notes on a textbook you

Although you will have more time to write out words, there is no reason not to use an abbreviated system that will take you less time to write and will still be quite readable when you start to study. Parker, John R., Ph.D., and Janet L. Weathers, Ph.D., eds. The Student Success Workbook Second Edition. Fountain Valley, CA Student Success, 1985. aJble to direct behavior of others < r a w Tr 1. increasing government role 2. information processing - computer

Verb Usage Verb Tenses

A tense is a form of a verb that shows the time of an action or a condition. In speaking and writing you often need to indicate when something happens now, yesterday, tomorrow. In English, different tenses of verbs are used to show past, present, and future. Verbs have six tenses, each of which can be expressed in two different forms. Each tense has a basic and a progressive form. The first chart gives examples of the six tenses in their basic forms. Simple tenses show actions completed or...

What To Document

Document all direct quotations. (See Quotations) Document ideas, facts, or opinions expressed in your own words if they come from sources you have consulted. This does not mean you must document every statement you make. Generally-known facts, not being the property of an individual, need not be credited. Little-known facts and statistics, statements which are open to question, judgments, and opinions are another matter. You should indicate their sources as a protection both to yourself and to...

Who is a relative pronoun Other relative pronouns include whom whose which and that

Correct John was one of the six boys who waited for the bus. Add an independent clause. Incorrect Taking public transportation sometimes means putting up with unpleasant situations. Such as waiting in the cold, competing for seats, and missing a stop. Introductory words like such as, also, and, but, for example, and that is cannot stand alone. Correct Taking public transportation sometimes means putting up with unpleasant situations such as waiting in the cold, competing for seats, and missing...

Work in an Anthology

The New Oxford Book of Irish Verse. Ed. Thomas Kinsella. Oxford Oxford UP, 1986. 318. Two or More Works from the Same Anthology Kinsella, Thomas, ed. The New Oxford Book of Irish Verse. Oxford Oxford UP, 1986. Colum, Padraic. An Old Woman of the Roads. Kinsella 321-22. Synge, J.M. On an Anniversary. Kinsella 318. Forward, Introduction, Preface, or Afterward Murray, Charles. Forward. Unfinished Business A Civil Rights Strategy for Americas Third Century. By Clint...

Writer

List conventions to be addressed in this response to literature essay Priorities for revision or for your next paper 1. 2. Based on a rubric developed by Dr. Kate Kinsella Advanced Proficient The paper does all or most of the following Title reflects the topic in a unique way Clearly addresses all parts of the writing task Includes a TAG (Title, author, genre) in the introductory paragraph(s) Analysis is thorough and summary is used only to ground the reader Clearly demonstrates an awareness of...

Writing a Research Paper

Throughout high school you will be asked to write research papers. A research paper is actually an extended essay that presents your research findings to an audience. Unlike reports of information that you may have done previously in school, a research paper usually takes a position on the subject you have researched and argues for a particular view or interpretation. As with the writing process, the research process has general stages that may or may not occur in a set sequence. Sometimes more...

Writing A Thesis Statement

Most academic essays contain a thesis statement located at the end of the introductory paragraph. The thesis states the subject of the essay and takes a stand, gives a position, or makes a claim about the subject which will be supported or argued throughout the essay. If you are answering a writing prompt, you may think of the thesis statement as your short answer to the question. If you are developing your own subject, the thesis lets the reader know what subject you will discuss and what your...

Writing Leads

The opening of your paper must hook or interest the reader. You might think of the lead as you create a working thesis. At other times you might leave the lead until your revision stage. The following lists some ways you might start your paper. Note Do not start your paper or your thesis with, In this paper I will show. . . . If this helps you get started and focused, use it on your rough draft but be sure to replace it with a more interesting lead when you revise. Ask a question that your...

Writing Numbers

Numbers are usually written in full when no more than two words are required. More than five thousand people attended the game. There were fifteen in the Latin class. The study hall seats seventy-five. Numbers requiring more than two words are written in figures. According to the last census, the population of Long Beach is 370,000. NOTE A sentence should never begin or end with a number expressed in figures. One hundred twenty-five students took the college entrance test. Figures are used to...

Writing Technical Documents Writing Application Standard

The main goal of writing technical documents is to report information and ideas. The writer skillfully introduces what the document will explain and supports this explanation with details and specificity. Technical documents provide the reader with the who, what, where, when, why, or how of the information and ideas being explained. The purpose may be to explain how something works, what the rules of behavior are in an office, procedures for conducting a meeting, the minutes of a meeting, etc....

Regular And Irregular Verbs

The way the past and the past participle of a verb are formed determines whether the verb is regular or irregular. A regular verb is one whose past and past participle are formed by adding -ed or -d to the present form. Most of the verbs in the English language, including the verb talk, are regular. The past and past participle of regular verbs have the same form. In the chart below, have is in parentheses in front of the past participle to remind you that this verb form is a past participle...