Authors Names Not Used Directly in Your Text

One view is that The Scarlet Letter is not about "sinful passion" but about "grand passion" (Sandeen 350).

Two or Three Authors: (Flores, Jordan, and Smith 178)

Four or More Authors: Use only the last name of the first author with "et al.," which is Latin for "and others." (Josephs et al. 24)

Unknown Author: Use a short form of the title in parentheses. ("Earth" 321)

Authors with the Same Last Name: Use the first initial or, if necessary because both authors have the same first initial, the full name of the author to distinguish between the two. (J. Angeles 241-44) or (Jamie Angeles 241-44)

More Than One Work By the Same Author: Use a short form of the title to show which book you are citing. (Dennis, War 421) or (Dennis, Victory 255)

Two or More Works Used at the Same Time: Use a colon to separate the two references. (Angeles 24; Sandeen 131)

An Electronic Source: Electronic sources may not have any page numbers. Use whatever divisions exist-paragraphs ("par.") or sections ("sec.") or the word "screen." (Daniels, sec. 5) Likewise, if there is no known author, use a short form of the title. ("Jazz" 47)

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