In all other words containing these vowels ie is used

achievement, friendly, view, believe, niece, mischief, chief, priest, wield, field, relieve, siege

Words Ending in Silent e

• When a suffix beginning with a vowel is added to a root ending in silent e, the silent e is dropped.

hope -ing hoping use -able usable sincere -ity sincerity

NOTE: There are some exceptions to this rule. For example, in words ending in ce or ge, the e is generally retained before the suffix -able or -ous in order to keep the "soft" sound of the c and g in these words. The e is also kept in a word like dyeing to distinguish it from dying.

notice -able noticeable change -able changeable courage-ous courageous

• In words ending in ie the e is dropped and the i is changed to y before -ing to avoid two successive i's.

die--dying lie—lying tie--tying

• When a suffix beginning with a consonant is added to a root ending in silent e, the silent e is retained.

hope -less hopeless use -ful useful sincere -ly sincerely nine -ty ninety

• In a few words the silent e is dropped when a suffix beginning with a consonant is added.

true- ly truly argue -ment argument whole -ly wholly judge -ment judgment acknowledge -ment acknowledgment

Words Ending in y

• Words ending in y preceded by a vowel are usually unchanged by the addition of a suffix.

joy -ful joyful buy -er buyer play -ing playing valley -s valleys employ-ment employment

• In words ending in y preceded by a consonant, the y is changed to i when a suffix is added.

easy -ly easily carry -er carrier beauty -ful beautiful harmony -ous harmonious library -es libraries

• When the suffix -ing and other suffixes beginning with i are added, the y is retained.













Doubling the Final Consonant

• If words of one syllable or words accented on the last syllable end in one consonant preceded by one vowel, the final consonant is doubled when a suffix beginning with a vowel is added.

win -ing winning stop -ing stopping big -er bigger admit -ance admittance control -able controllable

Additional Rules to Remember

• In any word containing the letter q, u always follows the q.

request, quiet

• When the words all, till, full, and well are used as prefixes or suffixes, one I is dropped.

already, careful, until, thankful, almost, fulfill, welfare

• In words ending in l, the l is kept when -ly is added.

final—finally, special—specially, usual-usually

• In words ending in n, the n is kept when -ness is added.

stubborn-stubbornness, mean-meanness, sudden-suddenness

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