Regular And Irregular Verbs

The way the past and the past participle of a verb are formed determines whether the verb is regular or irregular.

• A regular verb is one whose past and past participle are formed by adding -ed or -d to the present form. Most of the verbs in the English language, including the verb talk, are regular.

The past and past participle of regular verbs have the same form. In the chart below, have is in parentheses in front of the past participle to remind you that this verb form is a past participle only if it is used with a helping verb.

Notice that the final consonant is sometimes doubled to form the present participle (skipping) as well as the past and the past participle (skipped). Notice also that the final e may be dropped in forming the present participle (typing).

PRINCIPAL PARTS OF REGULAR VERBS

Present

Present Participle

Past

Past Participle

play

playing

played

(have) played

skip

skipping

skipped

(have) skipped

type

typing

typed

(have) typed

wave

waving

waved

(have) waved

• An irregular verb is one whose past and past participle are not formed by adding -ed or -d to the present form. Although most verbs are regular, a number of very common verbs, such as sing, are irregular.

The past and past participle of irregular verbs are formed in various ways. The most common ways are shown on the following:

IRREGULAR VERBS AND THEIR PRINCIPAL PARTS

PRESENT

PRESENT

PAST

PAST

TENSE

PARTICIPLE

TENSE

PARTICIPLE

arise

arising

arose

(have) arisen

begin

beginning

began

(have) begun

bid

bidding

bid

(have) bid

bite

biting

bit

(have) bitten

bind

binding

bound

(have) bound

blow

blowing

blew

(have) blown

break

breaking

broke

(have) broken

bring

bringing

brought

(have) brought

build

building

built

(have) built

burst

bursting

burst

(have) burst

buy

buying

bought

(have) bought

catch

catching

caught

(have) caught

choose

choosing

chose

(have) chosen

come

coming

came

(have) come

cost

costing

cost

(have) cost

cut

cutting

cut

(have) cut

dive

diving

dived

(have) dived

do

doing

did

(have) done

drag

dragging

dragged

(have) dragged

draw

drawing

drew

(have) drawn

drink

drinking

drank

(have) drunk

drive

driving

drove

(have) driven

drown

drowning

drowned

(have) drowned

eat

eating

ate

(have) eaten

fall

falling

fell

(have) fallen

fight

fighting

fought

(have) fought

find

finding

found

(have) found

flee

fleeing

fled

(have) fled

flow

flowing

flowed

(have) flowed

fly

flying

flew

(have) flown

forsake

forsaking

forsook

(have) forsaken

freeze

freezing

froze

(have) frozen

get

getting

got

(have) got, gotten

give

giving

gave

(have) given

go

going

went

(have) gone

grind

grinding

ground

(have) ground

grow

growing

grew

(have) grown

hang (execute)

hanging

hanged

(have) hanged

hang (suspend)

hanging

hung

(have) hung

PRESENT

PRESENT

PAST

PAST

TENSE

PARTICIPLE

TENSE

PARTICIPLE

hide hid

hiding

hid

(have)

hidden,

hid hit

hitting

hit

(have)

hit

hold

holding

held

(have)

held

hurt

hurting

hurt

(have)

hurt

keep

keeping

kept

(have)

kept

know

knowing

knew

(have)

known

lay

laying

laid

(have)

laid

lead

leading

led

(have)

led

leave

leaving

left

(have)

left

let

letting

let

(have)

let

lie (recline)

lying

lay

(have)

lain

lie (deceive)

lying

lied

(have)

lied

lose

losing

lost

(have)

lost

pay

paying

paid

(have)

paid

put

putting

put

(have)

put

raise

raising

raised

(have)

raised

ride

riding

rode

(have)

ridden

ring

ringing

rang

(have)

rung

rise

rising

rose

(have)

risen

run

running

ran

(have)

run

say

saying

said

(have)

said

see

seeing

saw

(have)

seen

sell

selling

sold

(have)

sold

send

sending

sent

(have)

sent

set

setting

set

(have)

set

shake

shaking

shook

(have)

shaken

shine (light)

shining

shone

(have)

shone

shine (polish)

shining

shined

(have)

shined

show

showing

showed

(have)

shown

shrink

shrinking

shrank

(have)

shrunk

shut

shutting

shut

(have)

shut

sing

singing

sang, sung

(have)

sung

sink

sinking

sank, sunk

(have)

sunk

sit

sitting

sat

(have)

sat

slay

slaying

slew

(have)

slain

sleep

sleeping

slept

(have)

slept

speak

speaking

spoke

(have)

spoken

spend

spending

spent

(have)

spent

spin

spinning

spun

(have)

spun

split

splitting

split

(have)

split

spread

spreading

spread

(have)

spread

spring

springing

sprang, sprung

(have)

sprung

stand

standing

stood

(have)

stood

steal

stealing

stole

(have)

stolen

stick

sticking

stuck

(have)

stuck

stride

striding

strode

(have)

stridden

strike

striking

struck

(have)

struck

strive

striving

strove

(have)

striven

swear

swearing

swore

(have)

sworn

PRESENT

PRESENT

PAST

PAST

TENSE

PARTICIPLE

TENSE

PARTICIPLE

swim

swimming

swam

(have) swum

swing

swinging

swung

(have) swung

take

taking

took

(have) taken

teach

teaching

taught

(have) taught

tear

tearing

tore

(have) torn

throw

throwing

threw

(have) thrown

thrust

thrusting

thrust

(have) thrust

wake

waking

woke, waked

(have) waked

wear

wearing

wore

(have) worn

weave

weaving

wove

(have) woven

win

winning

won

(have) won

wind

winding

wound

(have) wound

write

writing

wrote

(have) written

wring

wringing

wrung

(have) wrung

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