The following is a key to some of the most common abbreviations you will encounter and possibly use in preparing your research paper

dir. "director," used to identify the director of a film or play.

ed., eds. "editor(s)" or "edition," used in the first sense to identify the compiler or compilers who also added notes, introductory statements, and the like.

e.g. exempli gratia (Latin) "for example," always preceded and followed by commas.

et al. et alii (Latin) "and others," used to refer to others involved in the writing of a source without naming them.

i.e. id est (Latin) "that is," "in other words," preceded and followed by commas.

narr. "narrator," used to identify the narrator of a film or sound recording.

p., pp. "page(s)" used before the number, means on page(s); used after the number, means merely "number of pages."

rev. "review," used to indicate the item reviewed in a book or film review.

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