Claims supported by reasoning

Looking back to the last example, what should we do about claims 4 and 5, for which no clear foundation is offered? Well, rather than allow their foundations to remain implicit, we can argue for claims 4 and 5 in precisely the same way as we are arguing for claim 1, thus developing a complex argument structure. We could, for example, add the following claims to our argument, not to support claim 1 directly but to show why claim 5 was acceptable.

6. Capitalist economies are structured in a way that creates two groups: labour (those employed) and capital (those who do the employing).

7. These two groups will always have different interests.

8. It is highly likely that, in future, Australia will continue to have a capitalist economy.

In the overall argument, claims 6-8 form a subsidiary argument to support claim 5 (one of the main premises in the argument), which in turn helps to explain the conclusion. Claim 5, therefore, serves in two different ways: as a conclusion and a premise. There is no difference in the way that the two arrows operate, nor in the way that the linking between premises operates in either the first or second part of

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