Contents

Preface to First Edition i////'

Preface to Second Edition ix

How to Use this Book xi

1 Smart Thinking 1 What is smart thinking? 1 How do we study smart thinking? 5 Why do we need to 'think smart'? 7

2 Claims: The Key Elements of Reasoning 9 Understanding language 10 More about claims 14 Claims and reasoning 18 Review 22

3 Linking: The Key Process in Reasoning 25 Links between claims 26 The analytical structure of reasoning 28 Learning more about the analytical structure 31 Review 37

4 Understanding the Links between Claims 39 Dependent premises 39

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5 More Effective Reasoning I: Better Claims 55

6 More Effective Reasoning II: Better Links 69

Information understood by where we find it 106

Information as it relates to other information 108

Information classified by the topic under investigation 109

Information as it relates to how we are using it 111

9 Planning and Creating Your Reasoning 120

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10 Bringing It All Together: Narrative and Structure 134

Example text 134

Casting and notes on each paragraph 137

Capturing the essence of the text 146

Overall narrative flow of the text 147

Summary 149

Answers, Discussion, and Further Advice 150

Glossary of Key Terms and Concepts 174

Further Reading 186

Guide to Important Skills 190

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