Exercise

Here are two further Comments. First, learn how to 'read' effectively ('reading' includes watching, listening, observing, and so on). The 'knowledge' we want in those five classes will not have a label that tells us where it fits into this classification system. Rather, it is our own analysis, while we read, that begins to make these interconnections between classes of knowledge. Hence active reading—with a keen awareness of the possible outcomes, the questions to be answered, the extra questions that might emerge, and so on—is crucial.

Second, everyone is reasonably good at searching for the third of these four types (basic details and evidence), yet smart thinking is precisely about the way that evidence gathered in this search can be related to values, assumptions, other possible conclusions, and contexts. In that sense, we need to work hardest and learn most about the other types of information. Experience and study tend to throw up great masses of 'facts', data, or evidence, and the other three types of information get 'hidden' or 'lost'; learn to read through the detail to seek out the more general types of information.

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