a If one is sick, then one should not come to work.

b When someone abuses your trust, they should be punished [another way of saying 'if someone abuses your trust, then they should be punished'], c All human life is worth protecting.

In each case, notice how these premises tell us why the particular evidence given leads us to the stated conclusion. On that basis, here are the missing framework premises for the answers to exercise 4.2:

1 Claim 2 needs claim 4: 'All nations should make prudent economic investments' (alternatively, 'if an action is economically prudent, then it should be pursued').

2 Claim 3 needs claim 5: 'A nation should act on its moral obligations' (alternatively, 'if a nation has moral obligations, then it should act upon them').

And the diagram for these claims is:

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